Toxic substances

Toxic substances (S) - poisonous chemical compounds, designed to destroy people.
Toxic substances are among the tools of mass destruction. As a weapon S known since antiquity. Wide application they received during the first world war, causing significant losses among the personnel of the belligerent armies. In 1925 in Geneva on the initiative of the League of Nations was made a Treaty banning chemical weapons. However, some countries (including the USA) have not ratified the Treaty.
S continuously improved. During the second world war the Germans were obtained most effective S organophosphorus number (FAUVE) type "herd". In foreign armies there are other OPTIONS.
Means of application of S are artillery shells, rockets and mines, bombs mounted on the aircraft, vylivanie devices and special device for formation of aerosols (generators, checkers). Gaseous and aerosol S infect the air and liquid droplet - terrain for tens and hundreds of square kilometers. Chemical cloud, maintaining effective concentration S, can move in the direction of the wind over long distances.
From a tactical point of view toxic substances are divided into stable and unstable. Persistent retain their activity on the ground in days and hours, unstable - tens of minutes. The most common classification of S - clinical - identifies the following groups of OPTIONS: 1) nerve (Tabun, sarin, soman, phosphorylcholine); 2) common toxic (hydrocyanic acid, Harlan, carbon oxide, arsenic hydrogen, hydrogen phosphide); 3) strangles (chlorine, phosgene, diphosgene, chlorpicrin in high concentrations); 4) skin naivnye (mustard gas, trihlortrietilamin, lewisite, phosgenation); 5) tear (brabanthallen, chloracetophenone, chlorpicrin in small concentrations); 6) irritating to the upper respiratory tract (diphenylchloroarsine, diphenylcyanoarsine, admit, capsaicin and its derivatives).
In the foreign press discussed the combat value of the new OPTIONS. Cipher CS marked On In irritants: causes redness, irritation of the upper respiratory tract, and in high concentrations and vomiting. Psychotomimetic - In type lysergic acid diethylamide - causes visual and auditory hallucinations, temporary depression or euphoria, persecution mania and panic, depersonalization and other symptoms resembling schizophrenia; the duration of action - up to 12 hours.
As substances acting on crops, called 2,4-D-derivatives of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. These OPTIONS cause the intensive growth of the individual sections of the plant and his death was due to a sharp deterioration of metabolism.
Stability and behavior of toxic substances in the environment depend on their physical-chemical properties, and on the meteorological and topographical conditions of the area. From physico-chemical properties of S the most important - the melting point and boiling point (which determines the state of aggregation S), volatility, the chemical activity in the process of hydrolysis, oxidation and reduction, as well as the stability of detonation. Special attention is paid to the methods of aerosol cloud, enabling transfer of low-boiling liquids and solids in melkorazmernye particles. The assumption is made the greatest stability in the atmosphere of particles with a diameter of 10-6-10-4 cm and maximum toxic efficiency (inhalation) of particles in 10-5 cm, as smaller partially thrown when exhaling, the same high worse penetrate into the lungs. Aerosol cloud may consist not only of solid particles (smoke), but also from a liquid in the form of mist and the so-called drizzle, especially dangerous when hit on the exposed parts of the body. High toxicity Of modern In allows you to create life-threatening concentration in aerosol cloud, almost invisible to the eye. From meteorological factors (air temperature, wind, rain) depends on the stability of concentration S in the air. Ravines, gorges, vegetation, buildings areas of multi-storey houses and some others contribute to the stagnation of the RC.
Toxicological analysis S actions include identifying ways of implementing them in the body, distribution and turning them (detoxification, interaction with enzymes in the body and path selection. The major ways of entering into the body are in the respiratory tract and the skin. Tear S act on the eyes. In may fall and in the digestive tract, such as with an infected S food and water.
The strength and nature of toxic effects of chemical substances depends primarily on the amount of OPTIONS received by the body. In relation to S acting on the respiratory system and eyes, the number is expressed concentrations; S action on the skin and the digestive doses.
Concentration of S is called their relative content per unit volume of air; it is expressed: a) in mg in 1 liter of air (mg/l) or grams per cubic meter (g/m3); b) in volumetric ratio (the amount of steam S is taken in the same units as the volume of contaminated air) - 100 volume units (in per cent)to 1000 or 1 000 000. To recalculate the weight concentrations in the bulk and on the contrary, use the formula:

where X is the weight concentration S in mg/l, V - volume concentration S in cm -3/l, M-gram-molecule. Calculations by these formulas relate to 0 degrees and a pressure of 760 mm.
Dose at the effect on the skin is expressed in m 1 cm2 - skin (mg/cm2), or 1 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg). The last symbol is used when the action S per os or parenteral route. When infected areas takes into account the density of contamination in grams per square meter of surface (g/m2). In addition, it is necessary to take into account the duration of S for which accumulate in the body or summation of its effects. Therefore, numerical designation of the concentration of added time in minutes.
Depending on the strength and nature of toxic action among concentrations About To distinguish toxic (amazing) and fatal. The last cause death with symptoms of acute intoxication. In the experimental practice they are differentiated on: a) conditionally lethal, causing the death of 50 % of the test animals (SD); b) minimum lethal causing death 75% of the experimental animals (SD); C) absolutely fatal, causing the death of 100% of the animals (SD). Concentration annoying (tear and irritating to the upper respiratory tract) are divided into: a) minimum annoying (threshold), in which there is the beginning of an action S; b) the minimum unbearable that cannot endure without protection.
From the practical side in the characteristic of toxic action On In, you must pay attention to: a) selective action, considering different ways of receipt of toxic substances in the body and the symptoms of destruction; b) the rate of occurrence of the first signs of defeat, discriminating S quick action when action is manifested in the first minutes after contact (S tear, FAUVE, hydrocyanic acid), and S is ticking, when the first symptoms appear after lasting for hours latent period (mustard gas); C) the rate of recovery, as the recovery time can be very different - from several minutes or hours (tear, irritating to the upper respiratory tract) to weeks and months (with organophosphorus agents, mustard gas).

In combat conditions have to deal mainly with acute forms of lesions that are conventionally divided into mild, moderate and severe.
In the process of diagnosis it is important to learn from history contact time with S, the conditions under which occurred defeat, external signs S, symptoms, did amazed means of protection. Mass character of the lesions is particularly important diagnostic value. The diagnosis is made on the basis of complaints of the victim, the objective of the clinical trial data and their differential analysis (see table).

Clinical and Toxicological characterization S
Name S The aggregate state S DM100 (mg/l·min) Unbearable concentration (mg/l·min) Route of entry into the body and the symptoms of the infection
Sarin Liquid 0,15X1  

Works by inhalation and through the skin With a light defeat - constriction of the pupil to the diameter of a pinhead, reduced vision, chest pain With the defeat of medium gravity join bronhospazm, asthma breathing, bronhorea, increased salivation, headache When heavy defeat join convulsions, loss of consciousness, significant inhibition of cholinesterase blood, the weakening of the respiratory and cardiac activity

Soman The same 0,07X1   The same
Phosphorylcholine " 2-3 mg on the bare skin   The same. Particularly strong effect through the skin
Hydrocyanic acid Very volatile liquid 0,3x10   Inhalation causes dizziness, shortness of breath, blackout, vomiting. The heavy defeat, convulsions, loss of consciousness and rapid death from respiratory paralysis
Mustard gas Liquid 0,07X30 0,15x10   To the eyes, the respiratory organs and the skin in liquid and vapor form Eye - conjunctivitis, strong blepharospasm, sharp pain, respiratory diseases, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, pseudomembranous process around the respiratory tract, followed by pneumonia Skin - chemical burn all degrees (erythematous, bullous and ulcerative form) In large doses joins obscherezorbtivnymi action - the suppression of hematopoiesis with leukopenia and cachexia
Phosgene Gas 3X1
  Inhalation of vapors of death from toxic pulmonary edema
Diphosgene Liquid 0,5X10   The same
Chlorpicrin The same 2X10   In small concentrations - tear action, in large - acts as phosgene
Brabanthallen "   0,0008X10 Tear action
Admit Solid   0,005X3 Acts dimokratias form by inhalation irritating to the upper respiratory tract
CS The same   of 0.001-0.005 Acts as a tear and irritating to the upper respiratory tract. Also causes a burning sensation in the skin and vomiting

Using chemical analysis can detect toxic substances on the clothes of the victim and rinse the skin. Biochemical blood test detects specific changes - inhibition of cholinesterase (FAUVE), the presence of carboxyhemoglobin (CO).
At postmortem examination there are changes that occurred in the cases of fulminant death occurred in the period from a few minutes to 1-2 hours), the acute period (in the first 3 days), the subacute period (4 to 10 days) and long-term period (after 10 days). Violations, the most specific to S, observed in the acute period. The differential diagnosis should be borne in mind similar changes in some infectious diseases (psittacosis, melodos, influenza, smallpox, plague, tularemia, SAP, anthrax, brucellosis). The autopsy should be carried in protective clothing and rubber gloves, and contaminated material degassing.
Prevention is achieved by use of a gas mask (see), protective clothing (see) and the use of collective means of protection.
Treatment consists in sequential following activities. 1. Prevention of future admission into the body. This is a special process open parts of the body (see Degassing, decontamination) and clothing with the help of degasifiers individual chemical package (see). Affected put on a good mask (ordinary or special - with injuries to the head and neck), remove it from the infected atmosphere, washed stomach (oral lesions). 2. The introduction of antidotes S (see). There are very active antidotes against hydrocyanic acid, FAUVE, arsenic S. 3. The treatment is symptomatic.
Emergency treatment interventions are: special processing of open parts of the body and clothing of the victim (degassing agents), antidote therapy, stomach wash oral lesions.
When assigning amazed to evacuate (see Step cure) remember that the nontransportable include: (a) the affected organophosphorus S in severe, b) in a state, life-threatening, in) affected S with pulmonary edema. Cm. Medical assistance (in the military field conditions), the Medical service of civil defense, Sanitary-chemical protection.