Ovary

The ovary is steam female sex gland.
Anatomy. The ovary has plotnosenow consistency, shaped like a bone peach. The average size of ovarian: length of 3-4 cm, width 2-2,5 cm, thickness 1-1,5 see ovaries Are on either side of the uterus, each on the back of the sheet a wide uterine ligaments (see Fig.), the side wall of the pelvis, slightly below the terminal line and approximately in the middle of it. With the uterus ovary connected the ligament. To the side of the pelvis is attached by cords to suspend one ovary.
The blood supply of the ovary is ovarian arteries, the exhaust from the abdominal aorta or from the left renal artery. Part of the ovary supplied with blood through the branches of the uterine arteries. Vienna ovarian meet the arteries. Lymph flow occurs in paraaortal lymph nodes. Innervation is carried out from the sun, verkhnebureinsk, hypogastric plexus.
A large part of the ovary is nabroshena. Under tunica ovarian it is located cortical area. It contains a large number of primordial follicles at a different stage of maturity. Primordial follicle formed the egg is surrounded by a flattened epithelial cells. Mature follicle has in diameter 6-20 mm and is called Grafova bubble, the cavity inside is lined with granular membrane and filled with follicular liquid.
Grafov bubble during ovulation bursts and from the follicle enters the egg, and from granular shell is formed of the yellow body, which is 2-3 times the size of Grafova bubble. In the yellow former body cavity Grafova bubble filled with fibrin, and on periphery has a scalloped rim structure yellowish color (see the Menstrual cycle).
In norm at two-handed (vaginal-brunetoochka) study of the ovary usually is palpated only thin women.

Ovary (ovarium, oophoron) - steam female sex gland (Honda).

Embryology
Bookmark sex glands, initially equal to the ovary and testicles, takes place on the 6th week, the life of a fetus. On the inner surface volfova body (primary kidney; develops at the beginning of the second month germ of life) there grows the germ (coelomic epithelium, initially in the form of a roller (sexual fold), which later evolved, differentiated and turns in the ovary or testis.

the development of ovarian
Fig. 1. The development of ovarian: a - Academy epithelium (1 - epithelium, 2 - mesenchyma); b - growth Zacatecoluca epithelium, indifferent stage 1 - Pflugerville bands, 2 - mesenchyma); - development of ovarian of indifferent sexual glands (1 - egg balls, 2 - archovogonium, 3 - follicular cells, 4 - mesenchyma).

The development of the sex of the embryo (roller) in the direction of ovarian gonads is that the epithelium it starts to grow into the underlying mesenchyme in the form of dense cell fibers (Fig. 1). Growing, sex gland gradually separated from volfova body. At this stage of development the primary Honda still has indifferent nature. Special development of ovarian begins from the end of the second month of fetal life and ends only in the post-embryonic period. Dense epithelial strands indifferent sexual glands, growing into mesenchyme, dismantled the last to separate cell group ("egg" balls). The cells of each of these groups are arranged in such a way that one of them, the primary egg (oogonia), is located in the centre and the rest on the periphery of cells in one row (egg cells of the epithelium). All education in General is called primary (primordial) follicle. First, the follicles are scattered in large numbers throughout the ovary. Further centrally located follicles die, leaving only the follicles located in the peripheral parts of the reproductive glands (cortical layer definitive ovary).

Anatomy
The size of ovarian: length of 3-4 cm, width 2-2,5 cm, thickness 1-1,5 see Weight 6-8, Right ovary usually somewhat larger and heavier left.
In the ovary are distinguished: two surface - the inner or intermediate (facies medialis), and the outer side (facies lateralis); two edges - free internal (margo liber) and mesenteric, or direct (margo mesovaricus, s. rectus). The outer surface of the ovary (lateral) adjacent to the side wall of the pelvis, lying here in a pit or hole (see below fossa ovarica). Internal free edge of the ovary is directed backwards (in dopasowa space).
Mesenteric (straight) edge facing toward the front, bordered by the mesentery of the ovary (short duplicatura peritoneum, mesovarium) and takes part in education of the gate of the ovary (hilus ovarii), through which in the ovary do arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels, nerves.

the structure of the ovary anatomy
Fig. 1. A woman's internal genitalia. The left ovary, fallopian tube, uterus and vagina opened; on the right is partially removed the peritoneum: 1 - the uterus (womb); 2 - lig. ovarii proprium; 3 - ramus ovaricus (a. uterinae); 4 - tuba uterina (fallopian tube on the end of the fringe fallopian tubes); 5 - ramus tubarius (a. uterinae); 6 - plexus ovaricus; 7 - ovarium (ovarian); 8 - lig. suspensorium ovarii; 9 - a. et v. ovaricae; 10 - lig. latum uteri (broad ligament of the uterus); 11 - margo liber; 12 - stroma ovarii; 13 - margo mesovaricus; 14 - appendix vesiculosa; 15 - extremltas tubaria; 16 - ductuli transversi; 17 - ductus longitudinalis epoophori; 18 - mesosalpinx (mesentery fallopian tubes); 19 - mesovarium; 20 - extremitas uterina and own a bunch of ovarian; 21 - plexus uterovaginal; 22 - a. et v. uterinae; 23 - vagina (vagina).


Typical normal regulation of ovarian (printing. Fig. 1). Ovary lies at the side wall of the pelvis, about midway terminal line (below). He freely and movably connected the ligament (lig. ovarii proprium) with the uterus. His mesenteric edge of the ovary as if inserted in the back of the sheet a wide uterine ligaments. Place of transition of the ovarian surface epithelium of the endothelium (mesotheli) peritoneal broad ligament clearly visible: it is whitish line Farrah - Valldaura). The ovary is adjacent to the broad ligament not close, it is put in the recess (hole) on the peritoneum (fossa ovarica). The hole is located underneath the terminal line in the corner between a difference. iliaca ext. and a. iliaca int. Posterior fossa is limited to the urethra and the common iliac arteries, top - external iliac arteries, bottom - uterine arteries (AA. uterinae). Free convex edge of the ovary backwards and inwards, mesenteric - forward and slightly backwards. The inner surface of the ovary covered funnel appropriate tubing and its mesentery (mesosalpinx), thanks to which it is formed the so-called ovarian bag (bursa, s. saccus ovarica).
Ligaments. Own bundles of ovary (ligg. ovarii propria) start from the bottom of the uterus, backwards and below the pipe connection of the uterus, at the end of the fallopian poles of the right and of the left ovary. Own ligaments, in the sense commit, exert little influence on the position of the ovary.
Paired Voronko-pelvic, or suspend one, the link (ligg. infundibulopelvica, s. suspensoria ovariorum) are part of a wide uterine ligaments (it folds), which do not contain the pipe. Each connection begins at pipe pole of the right and of the left ovary, and from the abdominal opening of a tube. Voronko-pelvic ligaments essentially also cannot be considered truly fixing factor that supports normal typical position of the ovary.
Pipe-ovarian ligament (ligg. tuboovarica) - twin abdominal fold (part a wide uterine ligaments)coming from the abdominal holes on the right and left of the pipe to pipe pole corresponding ovary. These bundles are large ovarian fimbria (fimbriae ovaricae).
The blood supply. The ovaries are 2 artery, Anastasiya among themselves: a. ovarica and ramus ovaricus (a branch. uterinae). Ovarian artery, moving away from the abdominal aorta (often a. ovarica dextra) or from the left renal artery (usually a. ovarica sinistra), go down to the pelvis, reach broad ligament of the uterus, continuing his path in the thickness Voronko-pelvic ligaments (lig. infundibulopelvicum) in direction to the uterus. Here a. ovarica is divided into several branches, one of which (the main trunk of a. ovarica) continues in the mesentery of the ovary, at its gates. The number of branches and. ovarica is sent directly to the ovary.
Part of the ovary (half or one third), the corresponding uterine the end, a blood supply mainly due branches uterine artery, and the part corresponding to the tube end,from ovarian artery.
Vienna ovary (vv. ovaricae) correspond to the arteries. Forming letopisei plexus (plexus pampiniformis), they go through Voronko-pelvic bunch, falling more often in the lower hollow (right) and the left kidney (left) of Vienna. In the ovarian vein form plexus in the brain area and in the gate of the ovary. The center uniting all venous plexuses of small pelvis, is uterine plexus (C. N. Tonkov).
The lymphatic system. The lymphatic vessels of the ovaries begin capillary networks near his ayasegawa follicles. Hence lymph held in the lymph vessels of the brain substance of the ovary. At the gate of the ovary is allocated podjazykovoj lymph plexus (plexus lymphaticus subovaricus), where lymph given to vessels, as part plexus ovarian artery, aortic lymph nodes.
Innervation. The ovary is sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. The latter challenged by some authors (C. D. Ostrinski). Categorically still parasympathetic innervation to challenge the impossible. The sympathetic innervation is provided postganglionarnyh fibers from the solar plexus solaris), verkhnebureinsk (plexus mesentericus superior) and the lower (plexus hypogastrics) plexus. Parasympathetic innervation is due nn. splanchnici pelvici.
The morphology of the receptor apparatus of the ovary are not well understood. Some authors even argue that described in the literature receptors should be considered artifacts. Yet, in recent research receptors are described in all layers of the ovary, it cortical and more cerebral layer, and also in the hilus ovarii.