Vegetables

Vegetables - juicy parts of plants, edible. Vegetables are divided into vegetative and fruit group.
In vegetative group included sheet (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, dill, sorrel), breeding (beets, radish, turnip, radish), flower (cauliflower, artichokes) and rhizome (a horse-radish, carrots).
In the fruit group includes tomato (tomato, eggplant, pepper), Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, pumpkin, watermelon, melon), legumes (beans, peas, beans), grains - corn.
Vegetables are the most important sources of vitamins C, P, E, some of the b vitamins, provitamin a (carotene), mineral salts (particularly potassium), several minerals, sugars, starch, volatile production, as well as fiber and pectin substances, necessary for normal functioning of the intestines.
Vitamin content is presented in the table (see the so-3, PL. "The content of vitamins in food products).
As a source of protein and fat vegetables are not that significant, excluding leguminous, amino acid composition of which is close to the protein of animal products.
Vegetables excite secretory function of all of digestive glands, and this ability is kept after cooking. Most sokogonnym action has cabbage, lowest carrots. Most choleretic activity has juices radish, turnip and carrot. A daily ration of healthy adult should 400 g of vegetables and 300 g of potatoes.
In vegetables contain a lot of water and enzymes. They spoil quickly careless storage; they easily develop mold. Storehouses for vegetables must be well ventilated, there should be preserved the optimal ratio of humidity and temperature of air.

There are two groups of vegetables - vegetative and fruit. The first includes: a) leafy vegetables - cabbage, lettuce, spinach, dill, sorrel, rhubarb; b) breeding - potatoes, earthen pear;) root - carrots, beets, radish, turnip, radish, Swede; d) stem - artichoke, asparagus; d) flower - cauliflower, artichoke; (e) rhizome - horseradish. The second group includes: (a) tomato - tomato, eggplant, pepper; b) pumpkin - cucumbers; pumpkins, watermelons, melons; legumes; d) grain - sugar corn.
The daily food ration of a healthy adult man must contain 500-600 g O.
As a source of protein vegetables do not matter, except potatoes, sheet O. and legumes, especially soy protein which amino acid composition is close to the protein of animal products. More significant is the role of Acting as a source of carbohydrates, mainly starch and sugar, as well as fiber and pectin substances that stimulate motor and secretory activity of the intestines. Fiber increases the excretion of cholesterol from the body, and pectin normalizada affect the intestinal microflora, stimulates its synthetic function, reduce putrefactive processes and accelerate intestinal peristalsis. Marked bactericidal and detoxifying properties of pectin, which most rich radish (contains 10,3-11,8% pectin), beets (4,8-7,2%), carrot (2,4-4,8%).
Vegetables are the main source of vitamins (ascorbic acid, carotene, folic acid) and mineral substances alkaline in nature. The body's need ascorbic acid is satisfied mainly due O. a Particularly important role in this belongs to the potatoes and cabbage, which, if stored correctly, can provide the body's need ascorbic acid throughout the year. Source of carotene are carrots, tomatoes, asparagus, pumpkin and sheet O. Sheet O., moreover, is rich in folic acid. In About. also contains thiamine, Riboflavin, nicotinic acid, Inositol (especially cabbage, melons and peas), choline, vitamin K and others as a source of choline in addition to animal products can serve as potatoes and cabbage, regularly consumed throughout the year. Vitamin K is found in spinach, color and cabbage. Lettuce, tomatoes, cabbage, rhubarb, spinach and parsley are the source of P-active substances. Recently in the cabbage juice found a substance called vitamin U (or antiulcusfactor). Noted its positive effect in the treatment of ulcers stomach and duodenal ulcer.
High value vegetables as a source of alkaline mineral substances that play an important role in the normalization of mineral metabolism and maintain acid-base balance in the body. O. are characterized by high content of potassium, and the inclusion of them in the diet allows you to create a diet of highly active on the content of potassium. Pronounced diuretic properties have pumpkin and watermelon, a few less - potatoes, cabbage and beets. O. are a source of microelements (Fe, Cu, Co, Mn), which play an important role in the processes of blood. The microelements that are in the vegetable, well used by the body, which is explained by the favourable ratio in their name and by the presence of ascorbic acid.
O. becoming increasingly important in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Known lipotropic property names and their ability to reduce cholesterol and encourage its excretion from the body. The high content in Acting alkaline substances eliminates tissue acidosis and helps to reduce the concentration of cholesterol in the body. There is evidence of the ability of crude Acting to reduce the intensity of conversion of carbohydrates into fat. An active factor assuming tartronovaya acid contained in Acting After heat treatment O. losing the ability to delay the formation of fat from carbohydrates. O. contribute to the downgrading of the thyroid gland and have a normalizing effect on neuro-vascular reactivity.


The most important physiological property vegetables is their effect on the secretory function of all digestive glands (N. I. Leporsky). Especially intensively excite O. activity of glands that produce pepsin, and they retain this ability and at different form processing (juice, soups, purees). The most pronounced sokogonnym action has cabbage, lowest carrots. An important property of O. is the ability to increase the absorption of the component parts of the food - proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals.
Biological properties of vegetables to the greatest extent expressed and manifested when using fresh O. Recycled O. several lose their natural properties. The greatest degree of taste, food and biological properties O. saved quick freezing. Of vegetable canned food should highlight green peas, cauliflower, asparagus, cooked in its own juice, vegetable purees and pastes, spinach, tomato paste and puree. Acting in tomato sauce (squash caviar, stuffed peppers and others) are rich in ascorbic acid, carotene and other vitamins.
In the basis of processing of vegetables (pickling, salting) on the process of lactic fermentation. Sauerkraut with the right preparation and storage in winter is often the only source ascorbic acid (the number reaches 70-90% of the original content in fresh product). The content of ascorbic acid in the head increases in the direction of his heart: in the outer leaves of 31.2 mg%, internal - 52,4 mg%, the stump - 71,2 mg%. High content of vitamins is different and cabbage brine: the amount of vitamin C in it reaches 35.4 mg%. In pickled cabbage of good quality total acidity (in terms of lactic acid) must be in the range of 0.7-2%; the number of NaCl must not exceed 1,5-2,5%; impurities are not allowed.
The content of ascorbic acid in salted cucumbers (Nizhyn pickles) reaches 12,9 mg%. In normal cucumbers ascorbic acid contained significantly less (1,53-3,84 mg%). Cucumber brine contains the same amount of ascorbic acid, as are cucumbers. Use for pickling cucumbers spices (dill, pepper, garlic, horseradish leaves, black currant, cherry) helps to increase the amount of vitamin C. Lack of pickles is a lot of mucus brine, is caused by activity of acido-lactic sliseobrazutee bacteria (a type of Packaging. Aderholdi). A lot of mucus brine is not an obstacle to the use of cucumbers in power, however, they become non-standard, getting sour and spicy taste.