Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy (oxygen therapy) - use of oxygen with the medical purpose. Apply in cases where there hypoxia (lack of oxygen in the tissues) or hypoxia (lack of oxygen in the blood).
Oxygen therapy is most effective when pulmonary forms arterial hypoxemia found in: 1) violation of pulmonary ventilation in acute pneumonia, capillary bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma attacks; 2) difficulty oxygen diffusion through the alveolar membrane with "lung heart"syndrome Yersy, swelling of the lungs toxic or circulatory origin (malformations of the heart valves, the attack cardiac asthma); 3) receipt of venous blood through the pulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses, congenital heart defects (tetralogy of Fallot, a complex of Eisenmenger and others). Inhalation of a gas mixture containing 40-50% oxygen, significantly improves the condition of patients. Oxygen in these cases used long-term (for hours, sometimes for days).
Circulatory hypoxemia, growing slower blood flow in the system of arterioles and venules, meets with circulatory failure. Circulatory hypoxia, especially in severe deficiency of blood circulation, often accompanied by high oxygen debt. With a view to its elimination spend a long session oxygenotherapy: inhalation of oxygen at least 40 minutes - 1 hour in the highest concentrations. Shows the use of oxygen in high concentrations in attacks of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction in the calculation of the elimination of the effects of hypoxia heart.
Oxygenotherapy certainly shown when carbon monoxide poisoning (carbon monoxide). In these cases apply Carbogen [a mixture of oxygen (93-95%) with carbonic acid (7 - 5%)]. Carbogen promotes increase of pulmonary ventilation, which improves the oxygen supply of tissues.
With the brutal conditions, where commonly found mixed forms hypoxemia, you should also use the Carbogen inhalation.
In the vast majority of cases the use of the method of oxygen inhalation therapy. You can (but with less effect) introduce oxygen and under the skin with a special tool. Under the skin for a reception to introduce 500 ml of oxygen and more, preliminary having measured the amount of rubber balloon. All the tools and instruments should be sterilized, and the oxygen is passed through a sterile cotton wool.
When oxygen therapy should closely monitor the health of the patient and with the emergence of unpleasant sensations to stop inhalation.
Oxygen therapy in children is of great importance in the fight against oxygen insufficiency of any etiology. The therapeutic use of oxygen is based on its favorable effect on metabolic processes in the body. The most simple oxygen flow sick child may be carried out through the funnel of the oxygen tent. This method is not precise oxygen, and its content in the air we breathe is increased only by 2%, the rest falls into the surrounding space. Oxygen via nasal cannula allows for a more economically oxygen therapy, but the difficulties dosage remain. In addition, the presence of a catheter in the nasal passages annoying and upsetting for children. Oxygen therapy with oxygen tent (Fig) provides strict dosage gas and economical consumption. Oxygen tent comfortable for the child, especially if provided by the system for the removal of exhaust air and of absorption of water vapor. Oxygen therapy in children provides a good effect in the early of its application, continuity, duration.

oxygen tent
Oxygen tent (oxygen flow through humidifier)

In acute respiratory failure oxygen sick child to hold for 15 to 20 minutes with an interval of 2 hours. The length of the interval is determined in each case by the state of the child. When reducing respiratory failure intervals between periods of delivering oxygen increases. When conducting oxygen therapy use only humidified oxygen. The concentration of oxygen in the air we breathe should be 30-50%. This is best achieved by a continuous supply of oxygen in an oxygen tent from a cylinder with a speed of 2 liters in 1 min. Overdose of oxygen is not less dangerous than lack of its introduction. In newborns and especially premature babies, long time was in high partial pressure of oxygen, developing eye damage (syndrome of retrolental fibroplasia), caused by a spasm of the blood vessels and ischemia of the retina.
Subcutaneous method oxygen therapy in children does not have sufficient effectiveness. Cm. also the Oxygen-breathing equipment.