Burns

Burns - tissue damage caused by the action of high temperature (thermal burns), chemicals, primarily of strong acids and caustic alkalis (burns), electric power (electrical burns), radiation-UV (including solar radiation, x-ray and other (radiation burns).

Burns (combustiones) - tissue damage arising from thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation exposure.

thermal burns
Fig. 1. Burn the brush I and II degrees.
Fig. 2. Burn brush II and III degree.
Fig. 3. Deep burn brush (III and IV degree).

Thermal burns arise from the action of flame, hot liquids and gases (for example, water steam) or from contact with hot objects such as metal (the so-called contact burns). The severity of burns is primarily determined by the depth of tissue damage; there are the following degrees of burns (Fig. 1-3): I - redness and swelling of the affected skin; II - exfoliation of epidermis with the formation of bubbles; III And - death of the surface layers of the skin; III B - mortification of all skin layers; IV - the more deep superficial necrosis of soft tissues, bones, joints. Burns I and II degree is called the surface, all the rest - deep.
The severity of burns depends on its size: the larger burned surface, the harder burn. Before the introduction of modern methods of treatment was believed that burns even only II and III a degree, but it occupies 1/3 of the surface of the skin, fatal. Burns 10% of all skin and more considered to be extensive, less than 10% is limited. Limited burns III and IV degree life-threatening in case of severe complications and can lead to disfigurement (burns on the face), development of cicatricial contracture (burns the joints, neck), stenosis of the esophagus, deformation of the genital organs.
The most severe burns caused by fire (burning clothes of the victim). Burns hot liquids can be very extensive, but seldom reach more than III A. Contact burns and scalds incendiary substances (Napalm, phosphorus), on the contrary, deep tissue damage often are limited (if not my clothes caught fire).
Large and deep burns, in addition to local changes, always accompanied by a number of common disorders, United under the name "burn disease". In it there are 4 periods: 1 - burn shock; 2 - the period of burn infection; 3 - the period of exhaustion; 4 - the recovery period. In the first period is developing clinical picture of shock, the characteristic feature of which is a significant violation of urination (decreases sharply daily quantity of urine and blood clots. Very severe burn shock can rapidly lead to death of the victim, in simpler cases, the duration of the shock is usually no more than 1-2 days. The second period of burn disease - period burn infections - caused by the collapse of the burnt tissues, their suppuration and abundant absorption of toxic substances from the surface burns. There is a purulent-resorptive fever (see). The body temperature of the victim can reach 40-41 degrees, that is very unfavorable prognostic sign. When pollution deep burns of land can grow tetanus. In this period often develop various complications, especially often - pneumonia, rarely - renal disease. In especially difficult during infection, possible sepsis (see). In severely burned may experience stomach bleeding, ulceration of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, sometimes acute mental disorders.
Long purulent-resorptive fever burns, as with extensive purulent wound leads to traumatic depletion (see), which in such cases is called a burn depletion. This period (third) of burn disease is manifested by a sharp loss of weight of the patient, anemia, weakening or disappearance of febrile reactions, despite continued purulent process. The patient becomes weak, often formed decubitus (see), sometimes even on the face, cheekbone. If the period of burn depletion managed to prevent or he happily over, then comes the period of recovery. The condition of the patient improves, there is an appetite, normalizes sleep, burned surface is cleaned and granuliruth.

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