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Falls from height

Falls from height and the resulting damage in forensic medicine are considered as a kind of blunt objects. While free-falling body hits fixed surface (plane). The scale of the damage is the sum of the kinetic energy of a freely falling body and the nature of the surface on which body is falling. Great importance is the position of the body at the moment of collision with the plane. At high speed collision even on the surface of the water can be the phenomenon shaking body, bruises, fractures and ruptures to internal organs.
In forensic medicine on the basis of morphological data to distinguish several types of falling of the body.
The fall in the plane imply the fall of man from a standing position or when it is in motion on the ground under the feet (ground floor, asphalt or a cobblestone road surface, and others). However, often there are fractures of upper and lower limbs (such as a fracture of the forearm in a "typical" place, Dupuytrens fracture of the tibia, spiral fracture of the hip and other). External injuries in the form of bruises and abrasions usually minor, isolated. As a rule, there are no signs of injury and concussion of the internal organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities. In the fall of man, being in vertical position, and the head stroke can occur contused wounds, broken bones, skull, injury and brain concussion.
The volume of injury increases (especially in the head), if the body when the fall is given extra speed (hit, hit). Depending on the position of the head at the moment of collision the resulting cracks of calvarium are mainly distributed on the code or the base. There contusion of the brain tissue in the area of impact and to diametrically opposite side (area protivoparaz). Such double localization of foci of brain injury characteristic hit head against a fixed obstacle, while the blow with a blunt object on the head area of injury and bleeding under the shell and in the substance of the brain usually formed in the zone of collision.
Falling from a height of 10 m is also characterized by small volume of external damage. However, if you fall from this height may impact not only the lateral surfaces of the body, but fall on the head. There is a close relationship between the nature of injuries of the bones of the cranial vault and anatomical structure of the cervical spine.
When brachycephalics the shape of the head and relatively long neck (13-16 cm) are more likely to occur compression fractures V-VI cervical vertebrae than broken bones of the cranial vault. If the length of the cervical spine less than 13 cm in the first place formed fractures of the bones of the cranial vault. In cases dolichocephalic configuration skull when falling head first damaged the bone from the cranial roof, while in the cervical spine Injuries can not detect.
Spinal injury in the thoracic and lumbar regions when falling in vertical position is determined by the position of the body and the severity of lordosis or kyphosis. So, when falling on straight legs often damaged body XI-XII thoracal and I-II lumbar vertebrae. When a poorly-defined kyphosis (straightened back in time "landing") are usually destroyed III-IV and IX-X of the thoracic vertebrae. In cases falling on buttocks (in a sitting position) are more often damaged XI-XII thoracal and I-III lumbar vertebrae. In addition, often registered fractures of the pelvis (sciatic and sacrum), spiral fractures of the ribs in the back parts, combined with gaps intercostal muscles of the anterior chest. Can also be tears of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine.
When you fall on the shoulders" of damage depends on the subsequent trajectory of the body.
Due to the impact on the plane back get damaged blades, fractures of the vertebral bodies in the middle and lower thoracic departments. In case of bending the trunk at the moment of impact, in addition to damage to the blades, there are many compression fractures of anterior sections of the vertebrae, the thoracic and lumbar regions, broken sternum.
The fall of the body on the plane in horizontal position gives the possibility to register preemptive damage on the side of the collision, especially in the presence of the speakers of the limited irregularities or items.