Memory of heart

Much has been written about the so-called "biological clock". Indeed, in the body lot of cyclic processes, which can serve for more or less the exact measurement of time. However, as far as we know, nobody paid attention to what the exact timing produces heart. In ancient Greece the pulse is used as a stopwatch, in particular, at the Olympic games. If the values of the fact that from the heart, constantly comes great power rhythmic centripetal impulses, addressed not only vasomotor center, but throughout the Central nervous system? For timing, it's probably a convenient and reliable, always working mechanism. If the nerve that runs from the heart, aorta or carotid sinus, put on the electrodes and to strengthen the pulse so that you can connect the output of the amplifier to the speaker, you will hear rytmiczna noise like pytania of a steam locomotive. From the heart is about 20 times more pulse than comes to heart "commands" from the center. The impulses of receptors of the aorta and carotid sinus almost exclusively directed to the center. From what area of the brain nor averted we potentials, everywhere you can track your heart rate.
We decided to use conditional reflexes. The reader will probably know that after multiple combinations of unconditioned stimulus with conditional brain responds to the conditional stimulus as if he unconditional. But not everyone knows that the conditional stimulus may be time. However, it is so. In the school of I. P. Pavlov conditioned reflexes at the time were well understood.
Working with conditional reflexes, the investigator must ensure that no accidental distractions (sound, light, any) pet to receive during the experience could not. Then, the animal should be in familiar surroundings. So rabbits teach first to experience: in a few days, patients suspended in the hammock with holes for paws and they recorded blood pressure. The device for recording pressure reconstructed so that it can automatically and silently to squeeze carotid artery; experimenter isolated from animals: the random motion of the researcher may accidentally cause fluctuation of arterial pressure in the rabbit. To cough, sneeze prohibited.
We assume that if pinching carotid artery rabbit in a strictly constant rhythm, then over time the animal has developed such a conditioned reflex, and that without the clamps blood pressure will fluctuate in the same rhythm.
After a three-minute recording of "background" pressure parejiem carotid artery: blood pressure soars, and it lasts 20 C. Then sorokarichya break, and arteries are clamped again. All this is repeated daily eight times eight perejti a day.
After the eighth clamping pressure continue to record another three minutes or longer.
A "normal" rabbits on the nineteenth (average) day of such manipulation actually occurred conditional reflexes blood pressure in time: after the eighth, last clamping artery at them every minute of the curve blood pressure appear spontaneous wave, though not similar in shape to those which are under sinocarotidna reflex, but quite distinct. As further reinforcement of reflexes (on the 20th - 23rd day) such waves appear on the curve right from the moment you start recording, and no periti for this purpose is not required. "Biological clock" these rabbits are quite accurately, their deviation from the stopwatch is not more than 2-4 C. hold the watch with a second hand and try with such precision to count a moment, eyes closed. Unlikely to succeed without training.
Rabbits with partially denervated heart (from the previous Chapter) less "talented". They need to develop the conditioned reflex 30-31 day - a month! On the 36th day "biological clock" these animals are wrong a lot more than normal: 7-9 C.
And rabbits with most fully denervated hearts almost completely incapable of conditioned reflexes.
But the worst thing in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. They generally cannot cause the formation of conditional reflex on time, regardless of the duration of the experiments (forty five days).

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