Ginseng in vitro

To get more drugs of valuable rare plants or those that have to import from other countries, to help pharmacists came physiologists of plants. Group on culture of isolated tissues and organs of plants was created in 1957 at the Institute of plant physiology them. K. A. Timiryazev Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Tissue engineering as a method has about half-century history. It started to be developed in the laboratories of the German botany at the end of last century. It was interesting to know what will become of the cell, if given "independence", i.e. to remove the effect that her whole body of the plant. Scientists took the pieces of beet root, dandelion, stems of tradescantia, poplar, put on wet filters and tried to support their growth. But they were dying. Only in the early 30-ies of our century, scientists were able to find such conditions and such nutrient solutions that cells started to grow, proliferate.
Since that time, the method of tissue culture plants began to develop very quickly. Despite the fact that in our country, these works were started later than in foreign laboratories, studies were walking so quickly that within a few years reached an international level.
Culture of plant cells is needed for many industries - food, perfume and cosmetics, medical. Obtaining biologically active substances (alkaloids, essential oils) - one of the main directions of these activities.
In the chamber in sterile conditions hold subtle experiments with plant cells and tissues. The introduction of catch one single cell and placed in a single cell special Cup. In nutrient- enriched hormones, this cell will be divided, will give rise to a lump of cells, and then the whole plant-regenerate.
On special swaying plants in test tubes and flasks raise the necessary cells of plants. The constant shaking is not possible to form around the so-called cell aggregates zone toxic substances, which are formed in the process of cell activity. Liquid environment all the time is mixed. Thus improves blood flow to the cells of nutrients and oxygen.
In other cases, the cells are grown in vertical tubes. Using special relay is supplied from the bottom of the bubble. He and destroy toxic zone, and carries oxygen to cells, and splits the cell aggregates, which allows the cells faster to share.
Grow in pipes and tubes of various plant tissue that produces essential oils, alkaloids, resins, steroids and other substances. And no matter, they obtained from the flowers or the roots of the whole plant or cultured tissue. Moreover, sometimes in cultured cells necessary substances contained considerably more than in the cells of entire plants. Besides, in this process completely eliminates the seasonality in the work, because the cultivation of plants in vitro" does not depend on the time of year, the climate, the composition of the soil. Intelligent machines pick up everything you need to cells always been good. Many plants are worked out methods of cultivation isolated tissues and cells, either residents of distant countries, whence have to import expensive raw materials and finished medicines, or rare and endangered plants. For example, tissue snake grows in the Himalayas, India, Burma, Indonesia. The roots of this evergreen shrub contains more than 30 alkaloids. Such of them as reserpine, aymalin, is prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, as a hypnotic and as a means of calming the Central nervous system. Therefore, the success of the work with cell culture rauwolfia given the opportunity to receive from us and reserpine, and aymalin. In cultured cells application is contained in two times more. This is very important.
The birthplace of pink periwinkle - Indonesia, the island of Java. Some 50 of his alkaloids have a very important healing properties. Who knows, maybe they will give an opportunity to overcome severe diseases that were difficult to treatment! Vinca alkaloids pink, too, learned how to get out of cultivated cells.
Plants of the genus Dioscorea, two of which are in our country, contains various organic compounds. However, for medicine are key found in them steroid glycosides. Preparations containing the sum of these glycosides, were introduced into medical practice for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis.
Intensive harvesting dioskoreya Caucasian moved it from the category of a fairly typical plants of the Western Caucasus on rare. Another view Dioscorea Japanese wild species grows only in the far East. And Dioscorea was grown by the method of tissue culture.
Famous herbaceous plant of the far Eastern taiga Panax ginseng, which we are more accustomed to name just - ginseng.
For three millennia collected his miraculous roots. Growing ginseng diffused, it is very difficult to find in the grass. Usually under ten years of age it is only two sheets, only on the tenth year of life comes third. At twenty years of plants on the stalk is four leaf. It is from this time, according to Chinese doctors, root it starts to dial the healing force. Plants with six leaves meet extremely rare. They are not given so long to find collectors and dig.
On plantations ginseng first began to grow in Korea. It was long ago. Now in some places created a small ginseng plantations. But the industry does not have enough raw materials. Hooked tissue culture of this plant. Weight (tissue cells education) ginseng grows in hundreds times faster than the whole plant. This saves them from extinction in nature replaces it with expensive artificial breeding. The cultivation of valuable root are not only the laboratory setup, launched the first pilot line, which supplies raw materials to health professionals and the perfumers. Using cell culture, you can save endangered on Earth plants.