Anatomy of the pancreas

The pancreas is the organ of the grayish-pink color with the curved form of the triangular prism weight about 70-80, It is located horizontally in front of the abdominal aorta at 1-2 lumbar vertebrae, occupying the deepest place in podlojecna area. In the pancreas distinguish head, body and tail (Fig. 64). A portion of the breast, called a head, is located in the loop duodenal ulcers; on the front surface of the head, going to paterova nipple, is the common bile duct. This location feature duct explains the possibility of obstructive jaundice with the defeat of the pathological process in the pancreatic head. From the lower-left corner of the heads departs hook process, forming a groove that separates the head from the body of cancer. The bulge at the front surface of the right part of the body is called Salnikov mound. The body of the cancer spreads to the left, slipping in the tail reaching the gate of the spleen. Front and the less pronounced bottom surface of the pancreas covered by the peritoneum, and the rear is located in the lower abdomen, where it is attached by a thin beams of connective tissue at the back wall of the abdominal cavity. Tail cancer, in addition to the spleen, in contact with the left kidney. The bottom surface it fits in front of the transverse colon. About cancer are major blood vessels: the aorta, the lower hollow vein, portal vein, and the vessels of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas and left kidney.

Fig. 64. The pancreas.
1 - head gland; 2 - virungas duct; 3 - spleen; 4 - tail gland;
5 - the body of a gland; 6 - duodenum.

Across the length of the pancreas undergoes an excretory duct with 4-5 mm It flows together with the common bile duct into the duodenum via Tatarov nipple or General ampoule depth of 6-7 mm Entering the duodenum pancreatic juice and bile is regulated by the sphincter. In addition to the main duct, often an extension duct. He merges with the main duct or flows into the duodenum via incremental nipple. The anatomical location of the ducts of the pancreas variabelno. The most common type of location moves in the gland is the main and rarely loose. Sometimes, in addition to the main pancreas, in different places of the abdominal cavity meet incremental such glandular education, primarily located in the wall of the stomach, rarely in the spleen.
The pancreas is richly supplied with blood vessels. Arterial blood supply is from a branching. gastroduodenalis, a. mesenterica superior, as well as from the aa. hepatica, lienalis, etc. Vienna pancreas join in lower or upper mesenteric vein. In gland there are two network of capillaries. In acinose tissue they narrow, form long loops, and islet - short and wide.
Lymphatic vessels inside the body can be traced in the course of blood vessels and begin in the intercellular spaces of the glandular tissue. Lymphatic vessels are directed to lymph nodes that are located under the gatekeeper, near the aorta and in the course of splenic vein.
The pancreas has adrenergic sympathetic and cholinergic parasympathetic innervation: first, mainly from the solar plexus, renal, hepatic plexus and the second from the right vagus nerve and superior mesenteric plexus. Nerves within the gland form a complex network. Innervation of ferrous and islet tissue separately. The nervous system of the body is closely linked to the nervous system of the duodenum, stomach, liver.
The pancreas is mainly composed of glandular tissue, with tubular-alveolar-Usinskoe structure, like the parotid gland (Fig. 65). It forms a characteristic wrong polyhedral shapes cloves size from 2 to 5 mm Slices cancer separated from each other layers of connective tissue containing the nerves and excretory ducts. The most thin branching ducts become ferrous tube lined on a flat during Centralnoye cells. The main cells of glandular tubes presents nizkotitanistym epithelium. In the cytoplasm of these cells are detected Auroville grains, increasing in repose of body and endangered in the process of digestion. I believe that they are proenzymes.
Ductless consist of a single columnar epithelial and connective tissue sheath.

Fig. 65. Microscopic structure of the pancreas.
1 - midorikawa connective tissue; 2 - the islet of Langerhans; 3 - atinska fabric; 4 - Medakovic duct.

Insular apparatus of about 1% of the mass of cancer, is an independent body of internal secretion. The diameter of the Islands varies from 100 to 300 MK. 1 g cancer they are contained in amount from 3 to 25 thousand. Islets less in the head and body cancer and more in the tail section. They are mostly inside slices and surrounded reticular shell.
The Islands consist of clusters rather large, painted in pale, various forms of cells. Depending on tinctorial features there are several types of cells, in particular alpha - and beta-cells. b-cells are found in greater numbers; they form insulin. The function alpha-cells is less clear. I believe that they are related to the secretion of hyperglycemic factor of glucagon.

   Physiology
   Research methods
Acute pancreatitis
   Etiology
   Pathogenesis
   Pathologic anatomy
   Clinical symptomatology and diagnosis
   Forecast
   Prevention and treatment
Chronic pancreatitis
The etiology and pathogenesis
   Pathologic anatomy
   Classification
   Clinical symptomatology and diagnosis
   Prevention and treatment
The stones of the pancreas
Cysts of the pancreas
Pancreatic cancer
   Pathologic anatomy
   Clinical symptoms
   Diagnosis
   Treatment