Physiology of the pancreas

The pancreas is involved in the processes of life mainly in two ways: actsecrets and endocrine.
External secretion of the pancreas is expressed in selected acinose part pancreatic juice, possessing the big enzymatic force in respect of all components of food. Once in the intestine with bile and digestive juice, this fluid keeps the digestive process, initiated by saliva and gastric juice.
Pure pancreatic juice is a colorless alkaline liquid (pH 8.3 and 8.6). Part of it largely depends on the conditions of secretion and subject to large fluctuations. Among inorganic substances dominate sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride, in a large number contains potassium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, salt, calcium and magnesium, zinc, cobalt and other compounds. Bicarbonates are synthesized in the pancreas with catalytic impact of carboxytherapy.
Organic composition of pancreatic juice, bearing its main enzymatic properties, consists mainly of globulins. In pancreatic juice you can find creatinine, urea, uric acid and other substances.
The most important component of pancreatic juice, causing its digestive properties, enzymes are submitted by amylase, lipase and protease. Amylase α and beta secernentea active; they break down starch and glycogen to disaccharides. Lipase is also highlighted in active state (no proferment) and significantly activated bile acids. It splits the neutral fats to fatty acids and glycerol. Proteolytic enzymes are trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase. Trypsin and chymotrypsin are secreted in an inactive state in the form of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. Trypsin is activated in the small intestine by enterokinase and chymotrypsinogen - trypsin. The pancreas also produces and trypsin inhibitor, which is contained in the cells of the body and protects them from being digested active trypsin, formed from trypsinogen by autocatalysis. Trypsin inhibitor found in pancreatic juice. Protease break down proteins and polypeptides to amino acids. Trypsin splits peptide bonds in education involving carboxyl group of arginine and lysine, and chymotrypsin complements its effect, splitting of the peptide bond with the participation of cyclic amino acids.
A person secretion of the pancreas happens all the time, but can grow under the influence of neural and humoral factors. Changes of blood circulation can affect the secretion process, but they do not participate in its regulation. I believe that water and bicarbonate secernentea Centralnoye cells and epithelial cells vnutriposelkovykh ducts, and digestive enzymes - achinskie cells.
Secretory function of the pancreas is governed by two mechanisms: neural and humoral. The first is mostly carried out through branches of the vagus nerve, and the second - with secretin, hormonal substances produced in the wall of the small intestine when receiving the acidic contents of the stomach and stimulating hematogenous by the secretion of the pancreas. If irritation branches of the vagus nerve is a small amount of juice, rich in enzymes, and at action of secretin stands out copious amounts of alkaline juice small enzymatic activity. It is also known that, along with secretion in the mucosa of the small intestine produces hormonal substance of nature - pancreozymin stimulating fermentopathia (Harper, Raper, 1943).
Natural pathogens pancreatic secretions are coming from the stomach, food is mixed with gastric juice. Active sokogonnym effect has entered into the duodenum weak solutions of hydrochloric acid, ether and other substances that stimulate secretion of secretin, and pharmacological preparations secretin intravenously. Fermentopathia stimulated by the introduction of fat, various phagotrophic substances, as well as intravenous injection of purified preparations pancreozymin.
Exocrine function of the pancreas, despite its diversity and, of course, a very important role in the digestive process in the case of its loss and to a certain extent can be substituted digestive function of the small intestine. The most noticeably disturbed digestion of fats and proteins and less carbohydrates.
Excretory function of the pancreas, compared with exocrine insignificant. Research M M a Gubergrits (1948) and other proven excretion gland purines, various dyes, some pharmacological preparations and other substances.
The pancreas has vnutricletocny activities. The most studied her hormone is insulin. Currently, found that insulin is a high molecular protein substance. It is easily destroyed by proteolytic enzymes of the digestive tract that makes it impossible to apply it orally. Insulin deficiency results in increase of concentration of sugar in the blood and tissues, depletion of liver glycogen and increases in the blood and fat accumulation in the body non-completely oxidized products of metabolism of fats in the form of ketone phone
In the pancreas, in addition to insulin, also formed the hyperglycemic factor - glukagon, reduce the content of glycogen in the liver and muscles, leading to hyperglycemia. Insufficient education of glucagon may cause hypoglycemia and increased sensitivity to insulin. Lipokain found in the pancreas, preventing the development of fatty infiltration of the liver, and kallickrein has an antihypertensive effect.