Pancreatic juice

Pancreatic juice - digestive fluid secreted Achinskij cells of the pancreas into the duodenum. Pancreatic juice has an alkaline reaction and contains enzymes: trypsin (see), chymotrypsin (see), carboxypeptidase that cleave proteins; lipasesthat breaks down fats (see Enzymes); amylase (see), lactase (see Enzymes)that breaks down carbohydrates, and other Average number of pancreatic juice, secreted by the pancreas healthy person per day ranges from 600 to 700 ml
Regulation of formation and allocation of pancreatic juice is humoral and neural pathways. In the first case, with the participation secretin (hormone, produced at the contact of acid stomach contents with the mucous membrane upper divisions of thin intestines); in the second, under the influence of secretory fibers vagal and sympathetic nerves.

Pancreatic juice is the product of work Acinonyx cells of the pancreas; digestive liquid alkaline reaction. The number of pancreatic juice allocated 24 hours pancreas healthy adult, varies from 30 to 1770 ml (average 700 ml).
Physical-chemical properties and chemical composition the normal P.F. following [Mattis, Miller and Wiper (M. R. Mattice, J. M. Miller, T. C. Wiper)]:

UD. weight 1,007 ......................
Water..........................98,7%
pH............................8,7-9,0
Ammonia nitrogen................10-15 mg %
" urea..............5-15 mg %
" nonprotein............14.3 mg %
Protein General................190-34 0 mg%
including albumin..........60 mg %
" globulins..........40 mg %
The bicarbonate ................60-75 m·mEq/l
Calcium......................4.5 mg %
Uric acid................2,2-3,2 m·mEq/l
Sodium ......................0.2 mg %
Sugar ........................138 m·mEq/l
Inorganic phosphorus . . 1 mg %
Chlorides......................60-80 m·mEq/l

In addition to these substances, pancreatic juice contains enzymes: protease - trypsin (see), himotripsin, carboxypeptidase; for hydrolysis of carbohydrates - amylase (see Amylase), Maltese, lactase; for the breakdown of fat - the lipase (see Lipase), and enzymes that act on nucleic acid - ribonuclease and desoksiribonukleaza. Juice, collected directly from duct cancer, contains the active trypsinogen, which is activated in the intestine of the enzyme enterokinase.
Neutralizing the acid of the gastric juice, P.F. thus protects the mucous membrane of the intestines from peptic acid.


Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of operations:
And - according to Pavlov;
B - Robinson and Sobivas;
In - Gubar.

1 - pancreas;
2 - the abdominal wall;
3 - duodenum;
4 - "the bag", which was carved from a duodenal ulcer;
5 - metal cannula;
6 - isolated loop ileum.

Fig. 2. Schematic drawing of probes: - Valerie Ogren addressed and Lagerlof; In - Haimova. 1 - obturator; 2 - Oliva for the gathering of pancreatic juice.

To obtain pure pancreatic juice in dogs I. P. Pavlov developed a method of deducing pancreatic duct on the skin surface (Fig. 1,4). In such operations there is a big loss juice and severe irritation of the skin, which leads to the death of the animal. In the future, have been proposed by other methods [N. A. Bakuradze, V. E. Robinson and O. B. Salieva (Fig. 1, B), V. L. Gubar (Fig. 1), A. C. Soloviev, etc.], ustranyatsya this disadvantage is that on the surface of the skin is not displayed the duct cancer, and fistula separated section of the intestine, which fell duct. This part of intestine anyway reported the lumen of the intestine, so that during the experience juice could stand outside, and after the experience again went into the intestine. A significant disadvantage of these methods is that the output juice contains admixture of intestinal juice. To obtain P.F. man suggested: 1) dual probe [Valerie Ogren addressed and Lagerlof (G. Agren, N. Lagerlof)], is pumped through the first gastric content, through the second - P.F. (Fig. 2, a) and 2) probe with Anturium the device at the end (Y. U. of Haimov) (Fig. 2, B).
In clinic conditions often underestimate the quantitative side of pancreatic secretion; usually learn only enzymes, which, however, cannot serve as a sufficient indicator of the state of digestion (for example, number of enzymes after gastrectomy close to the norm, however, there is a sharp deficiency of digestion).
Depending on the number of pancreatic juice is: 1) more or less dilution and breeding food weight that determines the degree of adsorption of its enzymes, 2) a more or less favorable environment for enzymes and the conditions for the suction.
As stimulus to get P.F. more appropriate to use substances that are part of a mixed food. When using such irritants as HCl, you can explore the main potential secretory opportunities of the pancreas. For example, after resection of the stomach when hydrochloric acid is missing and secretion of P.F. is reduced, the introduction of acid in the duodenum or in the small intestine continues to cause secretion, although in natural conditions is allocated little P.F. and is a significant decompensation of digestion. It should also be borne in mind that the same stimulus, working on the mucous membrane of different departments of the intestines, is not the same secretion of pancreatic juice: the farther from the stomach is applied irritation, the less effect it makes.
Cm. also Pancreas.