Papilloma

Papilloma (papilloma), a benign tumor growing from the surface epithelium of and having a characteristic appearance papillary growths protruding above the surface of the surrounding unchanged epithelium.
Morphologically very difficult to distinguish the true papilloma from the top growths of the epithelium, the resulting inflammatory changes. Papilloma are found in all organ, which has a top epithelium. Single papilloma there are often multiple (diffuse papillomatosis).
Papilloma come in various sizes, sitting on a broad basis or on a thin stem. In most of the cases of papillary structure gives tumor look grainy bumps, lint, polyps, cauliflower. There are hard and soft papillomavirus. Solid consist of multi-layer flat epithelium, often with symptoms of excessive cornification, and dense connective tissue are found in the skin, cornea of the eyes, the vagina; they don't bleed and very rarely izyaslau. Soft papilloma located in the mucosa of the urinary tract (kidney pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, uterus, stomach; often bleed sometimes break off. Most of papillomas has a benign course, sometimes there is malignant transformation.
The treatment is surgical resection and radiotherapy.

Papilloma (from lat. papilla - nipple; synonym fibroepithelioma papillare) - papillary tumor. The main structural element of papillomas is papilla; the basis papilla - soudanese growth loose or dense connective tissue, is covered by one or many layers of epithelial cells. Papillae differ polymorphism and its size, unequal and quantitative relationship between connective tissue and epithelium. Depending on the dominance of one or other tissue distinguish P. solid (dominated stroma) or soft (dominated by the epithelium). The growth of buds in different directions makes sometimes P. kind of cauliflower. Stroma of papillae often swollen, riddled with different histiocytes. The presence of multiple P. called papillomatosis.
Place the development of papillomas are the outer skin, hollow organs and excretory ducts, covered with mucous membrane, the mucous membrane of the urinary tract, gall bladder, nasal cavity and paranasal cavity, choroid plexus of the ventricles and so on can be covered with multi-layered flat (epidermoid P.), cylindrical or transitional epithelium. The size P. ranges from small round protuberances pea-sized or smaller to the nodes, reaching the size of a fist and more (for example, P. bladder).
The reasons for the development of papillomas diverse. They may be congenital (for example, skin wart), the result of chronic irritation (for example, P. middle ear infections, genital organs, and so on). Some of them are of viral origin (for example, P. bladder rabbits - chapovsky P.), then there are viral tumors (see). Papillomas are related to benign tumors, not infiltrating underlying tissues, no metastatic, but they can be a prestage the development of malignant neoplasms.
Treatment of P. in those instances when they are accompanied by painful phenomena,- the surgical removal, diathermocoagulation. With inflammatory origin - anti-inflammatory and specific therapy.
The human papilloma virus - infectious agent that causes a person benign tumors (papillomas and warts).
Etiologic agent P. and warts person by its physical-chemical and biological properties similar to viruses P. rabbits, dogs and cattle. This small, DNA-containing virus, 45-55 MMK in diameter. Viral particle consists of a protein shell built from 72 capsomers. Capsomere form a regular icosahedron. According to the classification of the Miller virus P. person belongs to the group of Papova. Apparently, there is some antigenic similarity between virus P. human and monkey vacuolating virus (SY-40)related to the same group. Described successful inoculation of warts and papillomas from person to monkeys in front of the camera eye. Electron microscopic study of ultra-thin slices of cloth of papillomas and warts man showed that viral particles are missing in proliferating cells, the basal layer. First they start to appear in the cells of the stratum spinosum.
As in the case of P. in rabbits, the development of the early stages of the virus, apparently, is closely linked with the kernel. The virus and viral antigen are localized mainly in the cells keragialin and keratinized layer. A large number of Mature forms of the virus is found in the nuclei of keratinized surface of cells.
For virus P. person is characterized by high species specificity. However, recent experiences in tissue culture in vitro have shown that the virus P. person can breed with cytopathogenic effect not only in the skin cells 4-month fetus is human, but in the culture of skin embryos of mice [Oroszlan and rich (S. Oroszlan, M. A. C.)]. Neuss (W. F. Noyes) showed that while infecting cells of primary cultures of human embryonic skin and muscle tissue virus P. person two weeks after infection is marked morphological transformation of cells cultures with a characteristic multilayer their growth. In transformed cells was significantly changed the shape, size and structure of nuclei; often found giant cells, a significant number of large epitelialnogo cells. The virus and viral antigen in these cultures was not found. These experiments suggest the potential ability of HPV to transform the in vitro normal human cells in the tumor.
Papilloma skin is different in etiology and onkologii tumors and tumor cell proliferation skin, there are some common clinical features and characterized histologically by papillomatosis, leading to uneven wavy outlines of the epidermis and forming fibroepithelial the tumor. In P. skin distinguish the basis of connective tissue and epithelial layers. The last can be certain morphological features depending on the type P.
Lever (W. F. Lever) distinguishes between 5 types P. skin: warty nevus, senile keratosis, basal cell papilloma, common wart and acanthosis nigricans. Apparently, in this list you can enable keratoakantoma, arsenic and gonorrheal the keratoses, the so-called papillomatosis cutis carcinoides (I.e. Gottron) and, possibly, some other nosological forms. Thus, by P. skin include viral medicine, malformations, benign and malignant tumors and similar lesions of the skin and dermatitis is not known etiology; various well as their localization, prognosis and treatment.
Histological differential diagnosis of P. skin usually relatively easy; clinical same recognition of individual members of that group nosological forms can be difficult.