Paragrippe infection

Paragrippe infection, or parainfluenza, acute infectious disease caused paragrippe viruses, occurring mainly affecting the upper respiratory tract.
Epidemiology. The source of infection is a sick person, less healthy infected person. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets when talking, coughing, sneezing from a sick person to a healthy, as well as from the media paragrippe virus; a parainfluenza is observed throughout the year, often in cold weather. Meet as a separate disease and epidemic outbreaks in institutions.
The infection is widespread and affects adults and children, especially newborns and children of early age. Parainfluenza is very contagious. Out of 10 children in contact with paragrippa sick, sick 8. When the disease develops inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, larynx, bronchi, less often in the lungs.
There are several types of viruses, parainfluenza, therefore, possible re disease. After a previous infection remains, apparently, weak immunity to the virus that caused the disease.
The clinical picture. The incubation period 1-6, usually 3 days. The disease begins gradually, at normal or elevated temperatures (37-37,5 degrees), is characterized by symptoms of acute catarrh. Appear nasal congestion or runny nose, mouth - redness of the bows, tongue, soft palate, grain. The General condition of patients violated little.
On the background of Qatar Airways possible symptoms of the larynx (laryngitis): hoarseness, dry short frequent coughing, turning into a rough "barking". In children aged 1-3 years, with significant laryngeal lesions can develop clinical picture false croup.
Complications. Pneumonia and otitis caused by layering a secondary bacterial flora. In newborns and infants noted severe pneumonia.
Diagnosis is difficult because of the similarity of the clinical symptoms of other acute respiratory viral etiology. Laboratory diagnosis is crucial and is based on the detection paragrapsh virus in nasopharyngeal swabs and the increase in antibody titer to selected virus in the dynamics of the disease. The method of fluorescent antibodies allows rapid diagnosis.
Recognition paragrapsh infections requires differentiation with influenza a (see), adenovirus infections (see) and enterovirus diseases (see).
The forecast is favorable; becomes serious when croup, pneumonia and otitis media in infants.
Treatment. You should stay in bed. Apply symptomatic and expectorants, vitamins, warm baths, mustard. To prevent complications, especially in children of early age, prescribed penicillin, streptomycin, monomitsin and other antibiotics in the standard dosage.
Prevention is essentially a restriction of contact with sick and isolation of cases; when complications hospitalization is indicated.

Paragrippe infection, or parainfluenza,acute infectious disease caused paragrippe viruses.
Etiology. There are four types paragrapsh viruses; some of them were allocated by Canoncom (R. Chanock) in 1955, other types - Canoncom in 1957 and Johnson (K. Johnson) in 1960 from children suffering from respiratory diseases in some cases syndrome croup. Paragrippe viruses belong to the group of myxoviruses. They have tropism to respiratory epithelium and cause respiratory tract lesions. Diameter of elementary particles viruses 110 - 250 MMK. The most sensitive for growing paragrapsh viruses tripinsurance culture of monkey kidney and kidney of a human embryo. The presence of the virus in tissue cultures find on cytopathic effect. Adding to the tissue culture of erythrocytes paragrippe viruses like the first and third give phenomenon haemadsorption, so they called haemadsorbing viruses. Identification of viruses are conducted using specific immune sera. Paragrippe viruses quickly perish in the environment, their preservation requires freezing.
Epidemiology. The source of infection is a sick person, less healthy infected person. The infection spreads through airborne droplets. The infection is widespread and mainly affects children. In children groups have pockets. The immunity of typespecifier, possible re diseases of different types of infection.
Pathogenesis and pathologic anatomy of the almost unknown. Infection of small laboratory animals they saw the defeat of the respiratory tract (C. N. Tarasov). When infected volunteers received from them a mild respiratory illness.
The clinical picture. The incubation period - 1-6 days. The disease usually flows easily, has a short (2-3 days), is characterized by symptoms of Qatar Airways at normal or slightly elevated temperatures. In some cases, children may experience transient cerebral symptoms as a manifestation of short-term gazodinamicheskikh disorders in the Central nervous system (N. M. Zlatkovskiy). The symptoms of the infection of the larynx (hoarseness, rough cough) are early and often leading both at children, and at adults. In children aged 1-3 years old may develop quickly stenosis of the larynx, proceeding by the mechanism of false croup (acute onset, hesitant breath) with fast reverse development or wavy course. Syndrome false croup often occurs in diseases caused paragrippe viruses the first and second types (Chanock, A. G. Bukrin, the Kronstadt Blumenthal). In acute respiratory diseases other viral etiology of the syndrome false croup is relatively rare. Unlike groats with influenza, croup when paragraphshall infection is easy flow, lack of General toxicity and fast reverse development; the croup when adenovirus infection it differs by the absence of Express exudative component of Qatar Airways. From diphtheria croup paragraphy croup has a more acute onset, rapid development of symptoms of stenosis and safety of voices on the high notes. Morphological basis it is swelling podvysotskogo space.
In newborns and children of early age parainfluenza, mainly caused by a virus of the third type, often leads to the development of pneumonia.
Complications parainfluenza - pneumonia and otitis is determined by layering a secondary bacterial flora.
Diagnosis of sporadic cases difficult, due to the similarity of clinical data with acute respiratory diseases other viral etiology. In General, parainfluenza often affected larynx, characterized by ease of flow of the main symptoms, and the scarcity of catarrh of the respiratory tract, the insignificance of intoxication and short cycle of the disease. Proof P. I. is the detection paragrapsh virus in nasopharyngeal swabs and the increase in antibody titer to selected virus in the dynamics of the disease. The method of fluorescent antibodies allows rapid diagnosis.
The forecast is favorable. It becomes serious when croup and pneumonia in young children.
Treatment. There is no specific therapy. Recommended symptomatic funds. When croup shows hot tubs, mustard, warm drink, expectorant and antispastic drugs, oxygen, heart drugs, intravenous infusion of 20% glucose solution; in the growing phenomena of asphyxia shown emergency tracheotomy. Antibiotics can prevent activation of bacterial flora.
Prevention. Inoculation not. Sick isolated at home and in detention facilities in institutions to the disappearance of the symptoms; when croup and pneumonia, hospitalization is indicated. The room from which was derived the patient must be well ventilated. When taking care of patients and in the fireplace, it is recommended to wear respirators. Cm. also Respiratory viral infections.