Paralysis, paresis

Paralysis, paresis - no voluntary movement (paralysis) or weakening of the movements (paresis), developing owing to the defeat of the motor centers or pathways of the Central or peripheral nervous system. Paralysis and paresis should be distinguished from movement disorders caused by infection in other parts of the body: bones, joints, restrictions of movement due to pain, inflammatory and traumatic diseases of muscles and joints. Causes of paralysis and paresis can be infectious, degenerative, traumatic diseases of the nervous system and tumors. Sometimes paralysis observed in the second half of pregnancy or in early postpartum period, which is a consequence of toxemia of pregnancy , the so - called paralysis pregnant. Often paralyses are the result of a brain hemorrhage with hypertension or thrombosis of the cerebral vessels. In complicated childbirth peripheral paralysis may occur due to trauma sacral plexus or its individual branches.
The paralysis may be more or less widespread. Paralysis of one limb called monoplegia, paralysis half of the body - hemiplegia, paralysis of both lower or upper extremities - paraplegia. There are lower paraplegia - paralysis of both legs and much less frequent upper paraplegia - a paralysis of both arms. In case of incomplete paralysis shall apply the relevant terms: mono, Hemi - and paraparez. Paralysis and paresis determined by examining voluntary movements, tone muscles - passive movements, muscular atrophy - inspection and measurement of the limbs.
There are peripheral paralysis, caused by defeat of motor cells of the front horns spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves and cells nuclei of the cranial nerves , and the nerves, and the Central paralysis, caused by defeat of motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord.