Central paralysis

Central paralysis developing at defeat of the first motor neuron coming from the cells of the anterior Central gyrus of the hemispheres of the brain to the cells of the anterior horns of the spinal cord. With the defeat during the neuron in the brain is paralysis or paralyzed limbs on the side opposite to defeat. If the lesion is in the brain stem above the level of the nuclei of the facial nerve, become paralyzed also mimic muscles of the lower half of the face (nasolabial fold smooth, corner of his mouth lowered and behind when grin). This is because the facial muscles of the upper half of the face have bilateral innervation. Similarly, the muscles of little affected or not affected through bilateral innervation. Central paralysis called spastic. Muscle tone in paralyzed limbs greatly improved in the study of passive movements resistance is felt with considerable force at the beginning of movements and decreases as the repetition of movements. Resistance reminds resistance when opening a pen knife.
The muscles limbs under the Central paralysis affects unevenly. On the hand, suffer more of the muscle, raising his shoulders, and the shovels, the extensors of the forearms, hands, fingers; on the leg - lateral muscles and the hip flexor, extensor fingers. Upper limb is usually attacked significantly stronger than the lower, recovering its motion is slower, and often it was totally restored. The tone of the separate muscle groups also varies in different ways. On hand tone particularly increased in the muscles, leading shoulder, the flexor tendons of the forearm, the model, the flexor and brush. On the feet, on the contrary, in the extensor shins, feet and fingers. Atrophy of the muscles usually not, sometimes it is poorly expressed on the hands, but never accompanied by the reaction of rebirth. Tendon reflexes increased, skin reflexes fall. Often found clonus kneecap and feet that are quick and strong push kneecap down or hyperextension of the foot. If the re-twitching foot or cups. Typical for Central paralysis is the emergence of pathological pyramid reflexes, of which the most important are the Babinski reflex and reflex Rossolimo.
When spinal cord injury occurs most often spastic paraplegia, with the defeat pyramid paths in the brain - monoplegia or hemiplegia. The paralysis of all four limbs comes with lesions of the spinal cord above the neck shoulders, paralysis of the lower extremities - if the center is located below the cervical thickening. Paralysis when lesions of the spinal cord are often accompanied by violations of sensitivity, urination and defecation.
From described organic paralysis, caused by infringement of an integrity of neural elements that Innervate the muscles, it is necessary to distinguish the so-called functional paralysis that occur with hysteria. Meet hysterical paralysis of the arms, often lower paraplegia, rarely hemiplegia; sometimes there paralysis of the language of the neck muscles and other muscle groups. Hysterical paralysis may resemble Central and peripheral paralysis, but differ from them in the absence of organic symptoms. When hysterical paralysis, reminiscent of peripheral paralysis, does not fall and remain for a tendon reflexes, no muscular atrophy, no change of elektrovozoremontnij. Paralysis, simulating the Central paralysis, no pathological pyramid reflexes, there is no typical for Central palsy spasticity of the muscles. Hysterical paralysis usually come in direct connection with spiritual experiences.