Parametri

Parametri - detached Department pelvic fiber, located at the base of the broad ligament of the uterus, the cervix, between the sheets peritoneum. Pelvic fiber fills the gaps between the various organs of small pelvis and provides necessary for their physiological functions mobility. The more dense the departments of fiber play the role of the locking device. Using their pelvic organs are suspended. In the pelvic tissue laid blood and lymph vessels, lymph nodes, the nerves, the ureters. There are three interconnected by fiber-space: kolapushina, okolomatocnah, okolovrastno.

Parametri (from the Greek. para - around and metra - uterus). The term is understood differently. Some represent them cellulose, laid under the serous cover of the uterus (adventitious vagina); others - fiber wide uterine ligaments or at all, or only connective tissue fibers are laid in the basis of these chords (pars cardinalis, s. basalis). Martin E. Martin) for parametri takes anatomical education, to whom he gave the name of a u (see below); some authors under parametriem in a broad sense implies the whole pelvic tissue. PNA, the term "parametri" understands connective tissue between the two serous leaves wide uterine ligaments along the right and left edges of the uterus.
Pelvic cellulose, isolated division which is parametri performs various functions: fills the "empty space" (gaps, cracks) between the organs of the pelvis, providing them with the necessary mobility; loose departments of fiber serve as fat deposits (important for tone and tissue resistance); more dense departments pelvic tissue (called the seal area, fascia) ensure normal typical position of the uterus and other pelvic organs, keep them in podeseno-mobile state (fixing, fixing apparatus). In the pelvic tissue holds blood vessels, a rich network of lymph vessels and nodes, a dense network of nerves, the ureters. Connective tissue parameters, according to current data, is considered as apparatus and metabolism (a prominent role in this is given to the reticuloendothelial system).
Accordingly, the variety of functions of the fibre of the pelvis, i.e. parametri, the nature and structure is not homogeneous. Especially it is necessary to allocate the already mentioned "zone seal" [Blockers (W. Freund)]located at a depth of more dense departments parametrium that are in intimate connection with visceral sheet pelvic fascia and adventitia pussy pelvic organs. They, in fact, constitute the backbone (skeleton) parametrial (uterine) ligament, consisting of a dense connective tissue (collagen and elastic fibers mixed with smooth and striated muscle fibres. Such "zones seal" there are several.

U uteri: 1 - ligg. pubovesicalia; 2 - pars anterior retinaculi; 3 - pars media retinaculi (ligg. cardinalia); 4 - pars posterior retinaculi (ligg. sacrouterine); 5 - rectum; 6 - okoloplodna cellulose; 7 - the cervix uteri; 8 - kolapushina fiber.

Primarily due to their forms a u uteri (Fig) with its three departments: front (pars anterior retinaculi), a dense connective tissue fibers, embedded in the gallbladder-uterine wall (ligg. vesicouterine), average (pars media), the most powerful, which is part of the so-called ligg. cardinalia broad ligaments, and rear (pars posterior)that form the basis of the Sacro-uterine ligaments (ligg. sacrouterine).
Described a "seal" (u) cover, like a circle in front of the urinary bladder, in the center - the uterus and behind - the rectum. This circle stretched as hammock is an anatomical education, which is credited, along with the pelvic bottom (support apparatus) the role of factor fixing (fixing) is fully consistent with the position of the uterus (see the Uterus).
In addition to u, in the pelvis and there are other similar education, they are also called ligaments (ligg. teres uteri, ovarii propria, ligg. infundibulo-pelvica, s. suspensoria ovariorum). These seals with a u play a significant role in pathology, as the borders of the so-called subserous cellular tissue areas (spatiasubserosa), where the accumulated products of inflammatory processes (exudate, pus).
There are three cellular tissue spaces that are topographically among themselves in communication, though not particularly close (between them, you can still spend the known boundaries).
Kolapushina (paravesical) subserous space (spatium subserosum paravesicale) front limited anterior abdominal wall and rear of the symphysis, behind - the bladder (fascia propria Velpeau), on the sides - fibrous layers laid down in brigach round uterine ligaments, bottom - pubic-cystic ligaments (ligg. pubovesicalia) and, finally, the top - the peritoneum, which is turning from the anterior abdominal wall of the bladder. Almost kolapushina space identify with the boundaries of the so-called cavum Retzii. Direct relations paracervical space for the parameters you have not. In inflammatory processes accumulating exudate covered up under the front abdominal wall, speaking in the form of a triangle, with the top facing the navel (the so-called plastron are abdominale, see Parametritis). Spreading cellulitis okolopostelnoy fiber within okolomatocnah subserous space prevents the mesentery round ligament.
Okolomatocnah subserous space (spatium subserosum parauterinum) - right and left - size more paravesical. It borders: in front of the urinary bladder and cellular tissue, the mesentery of the round ligament, lateral - lateral wall of the pelvis, where okolomatocnah fiber blends the border line (linea terminalis, s. inno-ininata) with podbroshennogo fiber in the wing of the Ilium, rear - zone seals that are part Vorontsov ligaments and private ligaments of the ovaries, top - the top of the broad ligament and bottom - fascia endopelvina.
Okolomatocnah space compared to other not sufficiently distinguished from neighboring parts. Accumulating here exudate has two pathways: one along the round ligament of the uterus in the direction of the inner hole of the inguinal canal (above the inguinal ligament), the other directly to the iliac fossa and further towards coecum, resp. colon sigmoideum and to the kidneys. Okolomatocnah space is divided into two sections: the upper - mesosalpinx (alae vespertiliones) and the lower is the root of the broad ligament of the uterus (pars cardinalis). In okolomatocnah space distinguish two small Department - one in front of the uterus, between the bladder and the cervix (spatium praecervicale), the other behind, between the rear surface of the cervix, and rectum (spatium retrocervicale).
Border precervical space: front - rear wall of the bladder, behind - the cervix, top - peritoneum gallbladder-uterine fossa, bottom - gallbladder-cervical ligaments. The sides fiber precervical space, covering the neck of the bladder, according to parasitically fiber, it goes back in okolomatocnah space. Border POSADSKOGO space (spatium retrocervicale): front - rear wall of the cervix, behind - the rectum, top - peritoneum red space below the mucosa back arch. The Department of fiber has a message with the pararectal cellular tissue and okolomatocnah.
The pararectal cellular subserous space (spatium pararectal) contains cellulose, located on both sides of the rectum and on the front surface of the sacrum. It borders: in front of the seal area, which constitute the backbone of Vorontsov ligaments and private ligaments of the ovaries, behind - the sacrum, the top - promontory, bottom - fascia of elevatorov (m. levator ani). The pararectal cellular tissue directly related to the parameters is not.