Periodontium

Periodontium (parodontium; from the Greek. para - and about odous, odontos - tooth) is a complex of tissues surrounding the tooth. Part of periodontal includes the gums, alveolar bone, pariament and a tooth as a whole. The term "periodontal" (a synonym for amfodent) emphasizes the functional and genetic unity of the tissues surrounding the tooth.

Teeth can withstand high mechanical load when biting and chewing of food due to the fact that very tightly fixed its roots holes in the bone of the alveolar process of the jaws with complex systems of anatomy.
The complex of tissues, which provides that holding role, is called periodontitis. It consists of the following fabrics: bone of the alveolar process, which has a hole for the roots of the teeth; cement roots of the teeth; ligament fiber periodontal gap, which ensure the density of the fixing teeth and their certain mobility; gums, which is a powerful barrier between all the locking system of periodontium and oral cavity. As a continuation of the mucous membrane of the mouth, gums tightly connected with the tooth in the field of enamel-dentinal border with periodontal connection (Fig. 1, 2).
periodontal tissues structure
In violation of cleaning teeth microorganisms are the building mass, the surface of which is covered with an active bacteria and products of their activities. This so-called microbial dental plaque. The accumulation of dental plaque is especially intensive in the places where it is most difficult to remove in the field necks of the teeth and despego groove - deepening between the neck of the tooth and regional gum.
The accumulation of dental plaque mass of microbes die, impregnated with salts of calcium. Transformation of soft formations dental plaque and calculus in Tartar. At the same time continuing the increase of these deposits. A dense mass of Tartar from above is covered in the active layer continues its vital activity of microorganisms. In their composition appear particularly pathogenic forms that produce toxins, acids and enzymesthat cause an inflammatory response, destroy the protective layer of mucous cover. At this stage of the pathological process, limited to the gums, is classified as gingivitis.

After a powerful protective layer is in some places violated, the flow of microbial entities and toxins already freely into the heart of periodontal gap. First of all destroyed collagen formation. Pathological changes affect both the gum and bone. This is periodontitis.
Without treatment, due to the progression of inflammatory destruction of the supporting elements of the tooth die. Chewing load, which is a physiological, in such circumstances is excessive and gets the value of additional pathogenic moment, reinforcing the inflammatory response and accelerating the destruction of ligamentous and bone supporting apparatus up to full loss of teeth from their support site.
This process progressive destruction of periodontal characterized by the fact that the moments of acute alternate with periods of spontaneous (sometimes quite long) mitigation.
After ligaments between the tooth and the gum is destroyed and retaining components are replaced by granulation tissue and inflammatory infiltrate from mononuclear cells and plasma cells, appear periodontal pockets (PC). Primarily they are formed only in the field of individual teeth, some of their surfaces. With increasing duration of disease PC varying depths are found in the area of a tooth.
The scheme of the beginning and development of the pathological process in periodontal clusters of microbial plaque and its progressive transition from the surface of the lesion ( gingivitis) in inflammation below under the gum structures bone and periodontal disease (periodontitis) not in all cases lawful. Not always gingivitis goes to periodontitis. Moreover, there are cases of self-recovery when gingivitis.

Classification of parodont
Diagnostics of diseases of parodont
The inflammatory process in periodontal
General principles of treatment
Idiopathic defeat of periodontal with advanced lysis bones
Prevention of periodontal diseases