Parodontopatii (synonym: paradontopathy, parodontopatii) - diseases of the tissues of the tooth supporting apparatus. Parodontopatii is a collective term that includes any disease periodontal regardless of etiology, clinics and localization process. On this basis, to parodontopatija consider not only of inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the periodontium (see), but the tumor, such as epulis, fibromatous gums, and eosinophilic granuloma of the jaws. Branch of dentistry which studies parodontopatii, called "Periodontology.
Periodontal disease is very diverse both in clinical and morphological picture and etiology and pathogenesis. In this regard, the classification of parodontopatii is very difficult. ARPA (international society for the study of parodontosis) proposed the following classification P.: 1) inflammatory P. - periodontitis surface (gingivitis) and deep; 2) dystrophic P. - parodontosis; 3) neoplastic P. - parodontum. The latter is comparatively rare and, in essence, an independent group that does not have pathogenetic links with the rest of periodontal disease. The term " dentist" means only non-inflammatory lesions of periodontal tissues. Inflammatory same disease of the whole complex of periodontal tissues, accompanied by gnomecanvas and resorption of the walls of the alveoli, termed "periodontitis deep." Of all forms of parodontopatii most common gingivitis. Adults who have survived natural teeth, in 75% of cases suffer from gingivitis (surface periodontitis) or deep periodontitis, in which gingivitis is required symptom.
P. - polietiologic disease. In some cases leading cause of inflammatory P. are local irritants dental stone, white plaque on teeth, poor fillings and dentures, infection, etc. In the development of gingivitis are important as professional factors - flour, tobacco, superphosphate, metal dust and other Special importance in the etiology of parodontopatii are violations of occlusion and articulation, exceeding the limits of compensatory abilities of the periodontium and leading to its transshipment. The same role is played bruxism (nighttime grinding of teeth). As is known, the periodontal is very sensitive reflexogenic zone, besides, the capillaries gums due to anatomical features (they long, tortuous) is very sensitive to any endo - and exotoxins. Due to these features of the structure of periodontal P. may occur in the soil diseases of different organs and systems, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, hormonal disorders, vascular disorders, vitamin deficiencies, blood disease, diabetes, in poisoning with heavy metals (mercury, lead, bismuth and others), for allergies.
Clinical manifestations of parodontopatii very diverse. Also diverse and morphological changes. The intensity of any of Peterhof, the disease depend not only on the strength of the stimulus, but also on the individual characteristics of parodont and mainly on the reactivity of the organism. Those or other causative factors, which entail trophic disturbances in the periodontium, acting individually or in the aggregate, in some cases when specific reactivity of the organism can cause one form of Peterhof, in other cases two.