Periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is evenly flowing in the field of all teeth process dystrophy supporting apparatus determines the clinical picture of the disease. Parodontosis is characterized by a relatively slowly progressive exposure of the roots of the teeth, atrophy of gum and exposition of interdental spaces. Periodontal pockets and inflammation in the regional periodontium missing. The severity of the process is determined by the degree of exposure of the roots of teeth.
Typical of periodontal disease is the formation of the wedge-shaped defects, which initially formed often in the premolars upper jaw, and in the future are found in other teeth.
Complaints of patients with periodontal disease is quite stereotypical. The first symptoms are feeling paresthesias in the alveolar bone. As outcrops of cement teeth and formation of wedge-shaped defects join pain from thermal and chemical irritants, which is increasing due to progression of the process.
The reasons for the development of periodontal disease is unknown.
Data functional studies indicate a decrease in the intensity of hemodynamic processes, organic changes in the walls of blood vessels, decrease of redox processes in periodontal that suggests either initially developing neurodystrophic process in periodontal, or its genetic conditioning.
Idiopathic of periodontal disease with progressive lysis (dissolution) bone of the alveolar process on the clinical manifestation in the vast majority of such prodotto of varying severity. Depending on the causes lysis of inflammation and exudate are of different intensity, but characteristic is their low severity (the so-called areactive inflammation) when intensively expanding the lysis of the bone.
The indices of functional state of cardiovascular system and metabolic processes in periodontal correspond to the degree and the duration of the flow process.
Parodontale presents or isolated tumors and tumor formations (epulis), or generalized distribution in the form of fibromatosis gums. The severity of the process is determined by the massiveness of the entities.
Reason: chronic exposure local irritating moments (for localized processes), increased activity of fibroblasts gums due to genetic conditions, the impact of organ pathology or action of drugs.

Periodontal disease [parodontosis; from the Greek. para - and about odous, odontos - tooth; synonym: alveolar Peoria (pyorrhoea alveolaris), impedanta, amfodontoz (amphodontosis), a disease of Pochara, parodontologiya and other] - slowly current dystrophic process characterized by bone resorption holes alveolar process of the jaws, loosening of the teeth, education pathological gingival pocket.
According to some authors, parodontosis suffers no less than 50% of the adult population of the globe.
The etiology and pathogenesis. According to most authors, periodontal disease is a disease arising on the basis of the trophic changes in the alveolar ridge, due to local pathology of blood vessels and nerves. Many authors believe that periodontal disease is due to unhygienic content of the oral cavity, uneven distribution of the chewing load on the teeth, poor dental prosthesis and so on, but the ability to eliminate all these local reasons and detection of P. in persons, complying with the hygienic regulations, speak about the insolvency of this theory. Other authors give importance to the microflora of periodontal pockets. However, the presence of microflora only serves as an indicator of neglect P., not its cause. Some authors consider periodontal disease as one of the symptoms common diseases, diabetes, diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal, endocrine, rheumatism and other). Numerous studies in this area have shown that these diseases only activate parodontosis; in turn P. may adversely affect the course of these diseases.
Pathological anatomy. In bone tissue of lunacek teeth, depending on the maturity of the process noted the phenomenon of bone resorption with thinning and subsequent disappearance of bone beams. This is most noticeable in the area of the ridge between the teeth partitions. The foci of resorption find in areas remote from crest areas of alveolar bone. In bone marrow spaces among fat bone marrow see the proliferation of cellular-fibrous tissue.
Note sclerotization arterioles, located in the bone marrow spaces alveolar bone of the jaw, often with symptoms of hyalinization middle shell. Dating separate vessels sharply thickened, creates a picture of the obliteration of the vessel (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Changes arterioles bone marrow spaces of alveolar process of the jaws in parodontosis: 1 - sclerosis intima with moderate perivascular sclerosis; 2 - sclerosis intima and hyperelastic; 3 - sclerosis with hyalinosis.

Morphological changes in the nerve fibers are argentophile, EcoObraz thickening, vacuolization and fragmentation axial cylinders, as well as the complete collapse of the nerve fibers.
The epithelium of the gingival pocket immersed beyond enamel-cement border of the tooth. Formed pathologic dental pocket contains a rich and diverse microbial flora (streptococci, staphylococci, spirochaetes, E. coli and other).
Around the teeth get a picture of the chronic inflammatory process of development in periodontal pockets of granulation tissue.