Pasteurella (Pasteurella Trevisan, 1887) - genus of bacteria belonging to the family of Brucellaceae; 9: 1) p. multocida, 2) P. septicaemiae, 3) P. haemolytica, 4) P. anatipestifer, 5) P. pestis, 6) P. pfaffii, 7) P. pseudotuberculosis, 8) P. tularensis, 9) P. novicida. Pasteurella - small ellipsoidal or oblong sticks, krasaina bipolar, gram-negative; the dispute is not formed; not curdling milk; carbohydrates to decompose acid; a small exception of not forming indol and gelatine not diluting gelatin; most produces hydrogen sulphide; mobility, as a rule, do not possess; aerobic or facultative anaerobes; some species grow better with reduced partial pressure of oxygen. Are the plague (see), pseudotuberculosis, tularemia (see) and pasteurellosis (see) in humans, many species of animals and birds.
A typical representative of the genus - P. multocida - a comprehensive view, combining a number very close species (not less than 5 serological types), the names of which are often the source selection. Short ovoid sticks; form a capsule; motionless. Grow on nutrient mediums; characterized by the growth inhibition salts of bilious acids. On agar form colonies with smooth edges, in transmitted light, first light blue, then white, hardly removable loop and have specific smell. Broth give first, even the dregs, then slimy sludge. Optimum temperature for growth is 37 degrees. Aerobic or facultative anaerobes. Gelatine not diluting gelatin; milk with litmus paper do not change; forming indol and hydrogen sulfide; reducing nitrates to nitrites; decompose glucose, sucrose, fructose, sorbite, galactose, mannose, and, as a rule, mannitol, xylose and trehalose; do not degrade lactose, dulcet, amygdalin, raffinose, rhamnose, ADaNet, dextrin, inulin, glycerin. Is the causative agent of cholera in chickens and hemorrhagic septicemia in warm-blooded animals. The people of the disease cause very rare (cellulitis and abscesses by the bite of sick animals; enteritis by eating infected meat; sometimes pneumonia, meningitis). Pathogenic for white mice and rabbits.
Special attention of doctors deserve P. pseudotuberculosis and P. novicida; first because of pathogenicity to humans and similarities with P. pestis, the second because of the similarities with P. tularensis. P. pseudotuberculosis - polymorphic sticks with no signs of capsulorrhaphy. Mobile, if grown at room temperature. Facultative anaerobes. On agar form S - and In-form colonies. Broth provide uniform turbidity (S-form) or krupnogolovchaty sediment (form). Grow on hungry acid and bespatno agars A. A. Bessonova. Cause blue environment L. A. Timofeeva, and at 37 deg yellowing desoxycholate agar. Gelatine not diluting gelatin. Not forming indole. Restore methylene blue and nitrate to nitrite). Fermented rhamnose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, trehalose, melibiose, mannitol, maltose, fructose, galactose, and, with rare exceptions, glycerin, ADaNet, salicin and dextrin; not ferment lactose, Inositol, ritrit and usually sucrose, raffinose, inulin, dulcet, amygdalin and sorbitol. Milk with litmus paper do not change or call it blue. Serologically heterogeneous (5 serotypes). Are the agents of pseudotuberculosis in rodents, birds, rarely in horses, cattle and other domestic and wild animals. More often than previously thought, cause human disease (septico-typhoid form, acute appendicitis, acute gastroenteritis or subacute and chronic enteritis). Pathogenic for Guinea pigs; non-pathogenic for white mice.
P. novicida lives in water. Like R. tularensis, not growing on nutrient mediums, different from that of tularemia serologically and ability to ferment sucrose. Pathogenic for white mice, Guinea pigs and hamsters. Cases of human infection is unknown.
P. haemolytica in their morphology and cultural properties very similar to P. multocida. Unlike the latter, causing hemolysis, not forming indole, ferments maltose, raffinose, dextrin, usually glycerin and sorbitol; not fermented mannose. Despite many similarities, does not give serological cross-reactions with P. multocida. Highlighted in the cases of pneumonia from sheep and cattle. Non-pathogenic for rabbits.
P. septicaemiae - exciter septicemia the young geese. Non-pathogenic for laboratory animals, chickens and pigeons. Characteristic ability slowly dilute gelatin, forming indol.
P. anatipestifer allocated from ducks, patients with septicemia. Pathogenicity is not clear.
P. pfaffii allocated from the Canaries, patients with septicemia; other sources are unknown. Pathogenic for Canaries, sparrows, pigeons, white mice, Guinea pigs and rabbits; non-pathogenic for chickens. Unable to thin gelatin, restore nitrates to nitrites and forming acid at the expense of lactose.