Pathologic anatomy embolism

Depending on the nature of the pitch and its origin are the following types of embolism.
Tromboembolia is one of the most frequent forms of embolism. Embolus is detached from their formation of a blood clot (see Thrombosis) or particles. The blood of these emboli are brought to remote vascular pools and stuck in blood vessels, the calibre of which is less than the size of the pitch. The impact of tromboembolia on the vessel wall can cause reflex spasm of a vessel large caliber, which can consequently be stuck and small embolus with subsequent local thrombosis and layering of thrombotic masses on the embolus. Therefore, the consequences of thromboembolism may be inadequate size of the pitch.
The most frequent source of thromboembolic process are blood clots in veins of the lower extremities. Subsequent embolism system pulmonary arteries often entails fulminant death. The autopsy found in the trunk of the pulmonary artery and its branches thrombotic masses, often minimized in the form of wire harnesses. Lung - picture apparent swelling. When thromboembolism intraorganic branches of the pulmonary arteries medium and small-caliber developing heart attacks the lungs.
The most frequent source of thromboembolism in the arterial system of the big circle (marrow, kidney, extremities, spleen, and so on) is the heart, the left atrium - in mitral Vice, the valve in the aortic and mitral - in bacterial (less rheumatic) endocarditis (see), the left ventricle - with postinfarction aneurysm with thrombosis it (see myocardial infarction), "idiopathic myocarditis". Less often the source of thrombotic embolism is aorta when thrombasthenia atherosclerosis, aneurysm her with thrombosis cavity aneurysm, (see). The consequence of thromboembolism cerebral arteries may be pockets of softening of the brain, in other organs - heart attacks of different sizes.
Fat embolism usually occurs when the injuries of the bones with crushing bone marrow and blood gets mass of fat droplets, at least - when razlozhenii subcutaneous fat. Suspended in plasma oil droplets entered into the system pulmonary artery, where, divided in capillary network, cause clogging of the mass of the capillaries and development (when getting a large number of fat droplets) fatal pulmonary insufficiency with the picture of pulmonary edema. Proof of fat embolism as the cause of death gives color tissue sections of the lungs on lipids in one of the existing methods. Often oil droplets, having pulmonary barrier (through capillary network directly, on internal-lung venous shunts through the oval window) and once in the blood stream large circulation, entered into a capillary network of different agencies. In the brain, they clog blood vessels and cause the development of point hemorrhages" sometimes by type circle with miliary necrosis of brain tissue. Oil droplets can be detected also " the capillaries of the renal glomeruli. In modern surgical pathology embolism particles silicone appeared sometimes when you use devices artificial blood circulation. In the case of fat embolism in anaerobic gangrene soft tissues source of fat is either decaying muscle tissue, or plasma lipids that changed their physico-chemical properties under the influence of enzymes (lecithinase, lipase) clostridiales toxin.
From fat embolism should be distinguished embolism small particles of bone marrow in intravenous transplantation in the treatment of radiation sickness.
Embolism tissue particles. Most common embolism tumor cells or their complexes. This embolism is one of the phases of development of metastasis (see). During pregnancy and childbirth sometimes detect lung embolism particles chorion and fat drops original grease fruit with Horny scales and vellus hairs. When commissurotomy sometimes happen embolism coronary vessels and arteries of the brain particles calcined valve.
Embolism colonies of microorganisms (bacterial embolism) - see Sepsis.
Gas (air) embolism occurs when getting free air into the bloodstream. You may distribute it as venous and arterial system that defines and clinical-anatomical picture of the disease. The most simple for development mechanism (except for the introduction of air in Vienna as a result of gross technical negligence at the puncture the vein and infusions) and one of the most frequent causes of air embolism is a wound in the large veins, especially with fixed walls (for example, subclavian, spine). In these cases, due to the nature of venous blood circulation and the suction action of the chest outside air enters the lumen of Vienna and entered the blood in the right half of the heart.
Air bubble blocks access venous blood to the right atrium and, consequently, in the small circle of blood circulation. As a result, when a sufficient amount of this bubble, expanding during diastole and shrinking during systole, come asystole and lightning death. The autopsy found inflated right atrium, and at puncture under water out of it pulled out the air bubbles. In the right heart chambers find frothy blood. If you suspect an air embolism to puncture atrial or ventricular under water to avoid at the opening wounds large veins, which may distort the water sample. Identification of air bubbles in the capillaries of the lung histological examination is no evidence, as there may be an artifact of histological processing. The intake air in the venous blood flow can be angiomatous and angiectases areas with wound them, large, gaping vessels vascular field. Such, for example, fatal air embolism due to attempts to induce abortion is injected into the cavity of the gravid uterus soap solution.
In the modern heart surgery, there are cases of air embolism during open-heart surgery. When insufficient precautions (introduction of carbon dioxide in the open cavity of the heart) the air can be added in the coronary arteries, the arteries in the brain, causing severe changes in these organs. Massive air embolism coronary system entails a fatal cardiac arrest or the development of many miliary necrosis. For air embolism of the brain characterized by the development of multiple hemorrhages, mainly in the crust, with subsequent widespread red softening.
A variation of air embolism is gas embolism, or so-called the bends (see Decompression illness (DCI), driven by a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure (with the rapid rise from the depths, loss of pressurization of the aircraft at high altitude). A sharp decrease in pressure leads to the release of gases (mainly nitrogen), dissolved in the blood at a relatively high pressure, with the "foaming blood". Disorders of blood circulation of the capillary network of muscles cause muscle pain. Severe punishable by death with pathological pattern of air embolism small and large circle.