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Vicious circles, or the pathogenesis of alcoholism

Alcoholism, like any other disease, has etiology (cause of the disease) and pathogenesis 1 (mechanisms of the disease).
Regarding etiology, alcoholism, it would seem that there is clarity. But this impression is deceptive. Simplified treatment of "alcohol causes alcoholism" does not explain the fact that alcohol abuse occurs only at a certain percentage of drinking alcohol people. Theoretically it is possible, of course, assume that at a certain frequency and intensity of alcohol alcoholism can be formed practically in any person. Basically this assumption is true. But, as we have already noted, in the experiment on animals showed that after the termination of the long forced soldering solution of ethyl alcohol clearly reveals the part of the animal, which in the conditions of free choice prefer to ethanol water. Thus, even prolonged forced alcoholization animal parts does not cause the formation of pathological addiction to ethanol (still toxic damage caused by prolonged use of alcohol, exist). Alcohol, thus, acts only as one of the conditions (external) formation of alcoholism. The peculiarities of the psyche, the human body reacts to alcohol formation cravings and dependence on him,is the main (internal) condition for the formation of the disease. Today there is an understanding of the crucial role of internal conditions, contributing to the development of the disease. Intensive search of a natural personality changes, psychic, the body that result in the development of the disease.
Will not be an exaggeration to say that sometimes functionally person is predisposed to alcoholism: in his body there are distinct pathological trends, and in order to have any trouble, it required only the actual contact with alcohol. As seen in the clinic, such persons are often prone to abuse of psychotropic drugs in General. Starting with alcohol, leading to alcoholism, they can go next to the reception, for example, tranquilizers, stimulants, and so on, Followed by alcoholism may form polytoxicomania.
Through individual refract all environmental impact, and a measure of its resistance or susceptibility to pathogenic effects is crucial. External cause (alcohol), therefore, is a necessary but insufficient condition for the development of alcoholism. In addition, the occurrence of alcoholism individual patient cannot be understood without considering the effect micro-social factors (influence of family, friends, the situation on the production and so on) and all amounts of conditions and circumstances that determined the possibility of developing the disease, though the basis of its formation, undoubtedly lie General biological regularities.
For understanding the pathogenesis is particularly important to define the basic level, bearing primary responsibility for the development of addiction of the person to alcohol and for the formation of human dependence on alcohol. This section identifies and causal relationships protective and compensatory processes.
First, this link should be powerful enough potential to change the functioning of the most important regulatory systems. Secondly, such a body must have direct relevance to the work of the Central nervous system and psyche of man, since the initial appeal of alcohol is rooted in its effect on the mental sphere.
Now if we take into account that all the activities of the brain is based on neurotransmitter mejsinapticescoy transmission, it can be assumed that the changes in neurotransmitter systems in the use of alcohol and concluded the Central link of the pathogenesis of alcoholism. And although there are several interrelated neurotransmitter systems, the greatest attention of researchers alcoholism attracted neurotransmitters from a group of biogenic amines: catecholamines and serotonin.

1. The pathogenesis is the basic mechanisms of occurrence and development of any disease.