Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy of a poisoning with poison of karakotov

The mechanism of development of a poisoning with poison of karakotov very difficult. It is assumed that the poison is spreading not on peripheral nerves, and through the lymph system, causing significant disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The main toxic component of the venom of the Latrodectus, according to A. I. Kuznetsova (1944), is hemolysin, and according to S. Century Constansia (1907), the enzyme urinalysis and so on, Emphasizing the action of the poison on the Central nervous system, A. M. Kuznetsov simultaneously celebrates its influence on the circulation of the blood (hemolytic effect). However anemia that occurs when a poisoning with poison of spiders, as it seems to us, is not always the result of hemolytic process because of poisons 10 species of spiders, according to Rosenfeld et al. (1960-1962), only poison Lox. rufipes and to a lesser extent poison Lycosa causes hemolysis of human erythrocytes. Therefore anemia mainly associated with hemorrhagic process. The emergence of hemorrhagic syndrome, and cytolytic effect is connected, apparently, with the effect of hemorrhagic and proteolytic enzymes poison. The coagulopathy observed from the bites of poisonous spiders, in particular Lox. reiclusa, Berger et al. (1973) explain local intravascular coagulation, which is induced blood gets tissue thromboplastin and thrombin from a very hotbed of massive hemolysis. Intravascular coagulation and morphohistochemical changes of the vascular wall cause local necrosis. Dysfunction of the nervous system under the influence of the venom of the Latrodectus A. I. Kuznetsov (1944) explains the increasing inhibitory and the paralyzing effect of the poison, and the process of release of cortical centers and spinal cord, manifested convulsions, in his opinion, is connected with vegetative shifts. With the growth inhibitory and paralyzes the action of the poison on the Central nervous system and especially on the spinal cord original motor excitation followed by ataxia, you experience muscle cramps, then their paresis and there comes a coma. There are a paralysis of the respiratory system, sometimes pulmonary edema and respiratory arrest with the continued operation of cardiovascular system within 10-20 minutes This leads to the stagnation of blood in various organs, and increased capillary permeability to hemorrhage into the internal organs. Mechanism of action of the poison African spider Phoneyussa zesserti Dresco due to excitation of the reductions smooth muscles of their subsequent inhibition, and persistent neuromuscular block induced by poison Lat. mactans, by assumption Griffiths and Smyth (1973), due to the interaction of venom from presynaptic membrane, accompanied by a powerful release of mediators. Perhaps there is destruction of motor terminala and poison, apparently, has a direct, but weaker, postsynaptic action. S. N. Orlov et al. (1974) suggest that the relaxation of skeletal muscles is caused by depletion of neurotransmitters in the receptors of the neuromuscular synapse and neuromuscular block.
Diffusive excitation of the Central nervous system with the increase of the electrical activity of the brain and spinal cord, as well as persistent generalized spasm of the blood vessels (not removable atropine) contribute to the increased blood pressure (Sampago, 1943). One of the causes of hypertension are spasm and increased tone of peripheral vessels. Peripheral Pressor effect of the venom of the Latrodectus Calvo et al. (1958, 1959) not explain the accumulation in the blood renin and the influence of a Pressor agent. The increase in venous pressure, correlating with swelling of subcutaneous veins, injection sclera, cyanotic the flushing of the face and limbs, due to a violation of breathing, and convulsions. Hypertension is usually a two-phase. Initial reduction of blood pressure, A. I. Kuznetsov (1944) explains the paralyzing effect of the poison on the neuro-muscular system of the heart and blood vessels. In the development of toxic or anaphylactic shock and acute capillarity manifestations of nefrosonefrit And. And. Moszkowski and A. I. ohotina (1945) the value of depletion of the functions of sympathoadrenal system, taking into account individual peculiarities and the initial functional state of the cardiovascular system. Meanwhile Vellard (1956) and others explain slowly coming shock under the action of the poison Lox. laeta release in diseased tissue large number of histamine, serotonin and kinin.
Poor, unfortunately, the data pathomorphological studies. Vellard (1956) notes degeneration of the liver and kidneys, the extension of all vessels, heavy internal bleeding after being bitten Lox. laeta, and in case of poisoning with poison Peruvian spider tarantula Hapalops pictus - congestion of the brain, pulmonary edema and features of General hemostasis (the plethora of internal organs). Similar descriptions of experimental research. So, Sampago (1943), exploring the effect of poison Lat. mactans, describes only the plethora of internal organs, lung atelectasis and chromatolysis in large pyramidal cells of the brain; A. N. Bergen (1934) notes flushing of the internal organs, especially the brain and lungs, a lost camel, a Hall and Vogelsang (1930) was observed in Guinea pigs pulmonary edema and the beginnings of necrosis in liver, spleen, liver and adrenal glands. Smith and Micks (1968) noted on the site of the bite three species of spiders of the genus Loxoaceles area of hemorrhage with erythema, edema and necrosis in liver, small intestine and sometimes in other organs - hemorrhage. P. I. Marikovsky (1956) notes sudden plethora of vessels of the brain and its meninges, swelling light emitting in the context of frothy liquid, their uneven volume, the plethora of parenchymatous organs, flatulence and overflow its feces.