Pathological anatomy of schizophrenia

The current thinking on pathological anatomy of schizophrenia contradictory. Some authors deny the existence of any typical pathological findings. Others believe that there is a complex characteristic of schizophrenia macro - and microzoning in the brain and in some internal organs, in combination with clinical data are important in the assessment of the pathological process in General and contributing to distinguish this disease from other psychoses.
Macroscopically in the brain dead find that more, less visible agonistic effects swelling and anemia of the brain, occasionally small atrophic areas zapadenia in the crust, moderate fibrosis soft meninges, yet at least some signs of abnormal development of the brain.
Microscopic examination shows that in the pathological process involved the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, the hypothalamus (especially Neurocrine elements), stem departments and cerebellum; the biggest changes concern the crust and the cortex. The most pronounced changes in nerve cells and neuroglia. As a rule, find atrophic changes of nerve cells, puckering their lipid sclerosis, excessive accumulation of lipofuscin in their cytoplasm, and hydropic dystrophy, easy islavskoe fade, acute and serious illness, direct and retrograde degeneration, atrophy side appendages dendrites (spines). A maximum of these changes have on the 3rd and 5th layers of the cerebral cortex, resulting in the crust, primarily in ontogenetically young, its structures, formed melkoetazhnye not related to vessels, loss of neurons without any noticeable glioznogo reaction. Find areas of demyelination tangential and radiarnyi fibers, sometimes different degree of swelling, swelling.
Very specific changes of neuroglia, especially microglial (mesoglea), manifested its morpho-functional deficiency: a decrease in the number of micropositos, hypoplasia of them. They hardly identified conventional methods of colouring. Typical also inferiority mikrogelei reaction in response to exogenous harm or complicating the basic process of brain lesions. These features microglial associated with the failure of protective reactions of the reticuloendothelial system of the organism of a patient with schizophrenia.
In General, the pathomorphology of brain fit into the picture toxic-hypoxic encephalopathy. In acute leaky fatalities prevail expressed discirculatory disorders in the brain and internal organs. In works last time there is information about some of the differences in histopathological picture depending on the type of schizophrenia.
In the internal organs are frequently detected status lymphaticus or thymico-lymphaticus, sometimes considerable density of parenchymatous organs at the expense of expansion of the stroma. Quite often find hypoplasia cardiovascular system (the small size of the heart, the narrowness of the aorta).