Pathoanatomical branch

Pathoanatomical branch (synonym prosectorium) - part of the hospital (clinic), where they autopsy to determine the nature of the pathological process, causes the death of a patient and mapping found changes to the data in vivo clinical diagnostic research. Here organs and tissues of the corpse microscopically examine and, if necessary, put histo-chemical, bacteriological and other special studies. In addition to the autopsy, examine tissue and organs removed from patients for therapeutic purposes or for more accurate clinical diagnosis (see Biopsy).
Autopsy Department monitors the treatment and diagnostic work at the hospital or clinic, promotes the training of doctors by discussing difficult to diagnose cases of clinical-anatomic conferences. The morbid anatomy Department carries out scientific-research work.
The staff of maternity hospitals consists of doctors prozhektorov (scientists)and technicians and nurses. Technicians carry out the registration of corpses and biopsy material, completing the postmortem documentation (minutes of opening, the conclusion by biopsy), prepare histological specimens (see Histological techniques), help doctors in the organization of the Museum of macro - and micropreparations. Senior assistant is responsible for receiving, storage, preparation and delivery of reagents, instruments and equipment. Nurses help in time of autopsy, and clothe you embalm the dead body and give it to his family under the supervision of technicians and doctors.
The room pathoanatomical branch consists of a section, which produces an autopsy (see), histological laboratory, rooms physicians and ancillary facilities. The morbid anatomy unit must be running hot and cold water, Sewerage, ventilation, shower and a refrigerator to store corpses. Sectional should be bright, spacious (not less 15 l"2 in each section table), tiled to ensure wet cleaning and disinfection. To store the bodies of patients who died of infectious diseases, should be a special separate premises with restricted access. Cm. also Morgue.

Pathoanatomical branch (synonym prosectorium, from lat. prosecare - cut) - part treatment (research) institutions, which produce macro - and microscopic, and in the presence of the special cabinets - chemical, bacteriological and radiological examination of the corpses, morphological study materials operations and biopsies.
In pre-revolutionary Russia of protector was not enough, they were concentrated mainly in large cities and only with the development of Zemstvo medicine began to open prosectura at major County hospitals, and in the beginning of the 20th century and in some provincial cities.
Since the first years of the Soviet power on the increase pathology departments in large cities and in the provinces. In 1919 in Moscow on the initiative of A. I. Abrikosov was created Commission of prozhektorov at the Moscow city health Department, developed under the guidance of I. C. Davydov a number of documents regulating the work of pathology departments, the form protectorsm report and uniform for medical institutions of Moscow card comparisons of clinical and anatomical diagnoses, which served as a model for similar cards in the USSR. The same Commission was created in Leningrad and other cities.
Further there was been issued the regulations on prosectura, which became officially known as the postmortem departments of hospitals, and protector head P. O. on the rights of the head of the Department of the hospital.
Tasks P. O.: the establishment of the reasons and mechanism of death of the patient with the identification of the nature of the disease; identification when opening infectious epidemic diseases; conclusions on materials of operations and biopsies (see); increased knowledge of physicians by joint discussion on the clinical and anatomic conferences (see) the autopsies (see) and the standing Advisory assistance on issues of pathology; joint with clinicians scientific control of diagnostic and therapeutic work when comparing the clinical and anatomic diagnoses; scientific research and development of incoming material.
Work P. O. in the USSR regulated by the orders and instructions of the USSR Ministry of health. They identify practical problems that must be addressed P. O., and indicated the importance of research activity of these departments.
P. O. can serve several medical institutions, do not have their own P. O.; there are also the Central city maternity hospitals serving several medical institutions.
The nature, amount of work P. O. closely connected with the profile of the medical institution. In this regard, the organization and working conditions in P. O. various medical institutions have their own characteristics.
So, in hospitals mixed type currently autopsies more than in hospitals for children, infectious. In maternity hospitals, the vast majority of autopsies refers to a premature stillborn.
When P. O. created museums macro - and microscopic preparations used in teaching hospitals.
At the head of the Department is the head (protector), with extensive practical experience. According to its position protector subordinated to the head physician of hospital. The number of full-time employees P. O. installed by staff regulations, usually according to the number of beds in the hospital and the number of investigations of the biopsies. Of laboratory technicians appoint one senior; it is responsible for receiving and storage of reagents and together with the head distribute the workload between other technicians.
Currently in the design of new hospitals for P. O. provided for in a separate building on standard projects of Ministry of health USSR.
Sanitary-hygienic norms pathology departments regulated by a special decree of the USSR Ministry of health.
The room P. O. consists of sectional, which produces evidence, laboratory facilities, which prepare and process material for partitions and biopsies; head offices and doctors from a number of utility rooms: predsezonnoy, storage rooms and issuance of corpses, waiting rooms for the relatives of the dead, inventory, changing room for the staff with individual wardrobes, etc. For storage and distribution of dead bodies of infectious diseases allocate separate rooms with separate exit to the street.
Pathoanatomical branch must be provided with hot and cold water, improved sanitation, well-functioning ventilation and installation for the storage of corpses in cold areas. At storage of dead bodies in the basement or semi-basement premises for raising them in sectional and reverse the descent needed a lift. Sectional must meet three basic conditions: free and well-lit with sunlight place for opening, convenient and sufficient in size designated for doctors and students present at the opening, a convenient approach to the sectional tables with stretchers and wheelchairs. Breakout is typically located on the ground floor. The area depends on the number of sectional tables (not less than 15 m2 on a table in a small hospitals and 25 m2 in clinical). Floor and walls are faced with tiles. To sectional tables and two large quadrangular the sinks should be provided with cold and hot water. In large medical institutions can be several break - large, small and dead bodies of infectious diseases.