Pavlovsk : methods of study of digestive glands

To study the composition and action of digestive juices, it was necessary to get them in pure form. To Pavlova none of physiologists to achieve this could not. The highest achievement was considered, for example, the following operation. To get pancreatic juice opened the dog abdominal cavity, found gland and its Duct; duct cut, put him in a glass tube, and for those few minutes, while the animal was still alive, got a few drops of pure juice. I. P. Pavlov spoke strongly against such actions. Therefore, he said, and deadlocked study of digestive glands that are studied juices or contaminated, or obtained from a dying animal. Such data cannot move science forward.
Having completed his research on the physiology of circulation of blood, I. P. Pavlov took for overcoming challenges faced by the science of digestion, and not only brought this section physiology out of the impasse, but also created a fundamentally new physiological methods. As we have said, instead of methods acute experiments conducted on the operating table, Pavlov introduced in physiology methodology chronic experiments, than opened a new epoch in the development of our science - era fusion.
the Pavlov's dogTo get pure pancreatic juice in healthy dogs I. P. Pavlov opened the abdominal cavity animal and finding the duct, didn't cut it, and found the place walls of the duodenum, where flows duct. This piece of wall Pavlov cut than completely separated channels from the gut, not damaging it. Further, being sutured the hole in the gut, the experimenter was sewed a piece of the wall with an opening on it duct to the edges of the abdominal wounds hole flow out. It turned out that pancreatic juice flowed now not in the gut, and out into the funnel, substituted by the experimenter. After a few days the dog recovered after the surgery, and now for many years it was possible to receive on cancer pure pancreatic juice have a perfectly healthy animal. In the presence of other glands lack of juice of one of them does not lead to disability. Such is the remarkable property of the Symphony of life - here mostly is redundancy, multiple software functions, which always or almost always have a backup capabilities.
Similar by I. P. Pavlov received and net saliva, and bile.
Because the stomach is no big glands and ducts which can be deduced, Pavlov was simply "cut out" from the stomach little ventricle, which is connected with the outside world. Cavity artificial stomach separated from the cavity large stomach, but all the vessels and nerves that were kept. As a result, the animal had two stomach - one for the dog, the other for science.
The same method was studied intestinal juice. One of the loops of small bowel cut (with preservation of its mesentery containing blood vessels and nerves) and the ends of her was vivalis in the skin of the abdomen. Now it was possible not only to collect juice, but also to watch the movements of the intestine: in one end it has introduced some object such as a small ball that falls out from the other end of the isolated intestinal loops.
Quite exceptional courage in the operation has developed Pavlov to receive large quantities of gastric juice. In 1842 Russian surgeon Bass offered to do the gastric fistula - to enter into the stomach tube (through an incision in the abdomen), which would then at any moment to receive the contents of the stomach. Operation Basov was the forerunner of chronic Pavlov's experiments. However, the juice was made unclean, mixed with the remnants of food. So Pavlov and constructed a small ventricle. However, it was nominated a new task. The juice was necessary not only for scientists but also for patients suffering from decreased gastric secretion. In order to obtain large quantities of pure juice Pavlov proposed the following. Dogs with basovs'ka fistula stomach was made the second operation. He cut them esophagus and both the ends of it sewn holes out to the skin. After this operation a single drop of food pollute gastric juice. When food is swallowed pieces of food at once was falling back into the Cup, the dog again swallowed them, and so on, the same pieces she could have 3-4 hours in a row, and from the stomach intact liters of clean tech juice. Pavlov called this a wonderful experience "imaginary feeding, and dogs with this operation - "cash cows of the gastric juice". How, asks the reader, the dog could live if swallowed food did not get in the stomach? Apparently, other readers will explain to him that through the same fistula through which pours juice, you can download the stomach food. Is it acceptable to torture an animal? Right, no torment is not here. On the contrary, the process of long-term food without saturation is not fun? One of the greatest benefits, what promises sacred Scripture of Muslims to the righteous in Paradise is the love of delight with Geremi that does not lead to saturation.
Masterly surgical technique Pavlov and his incomparable ingenuity in creation of new operational methods give the grounds to assert that if he was not a great physiologist, then, of course, would be a great surgeon. Proposed operation has allowed to study in detail the organs of digestion. These studies brought Pavlov worldwide fame. In 1904 he is the first of the Russian scientists, was awarded for this work the Nobel prize.