Anatomy of the liver

topography liver
Fig. 1. Topography liver; 1 - hepar; 2 - lig. falciforme hepatis; 3 - ventriculus; 4 - lien; 5 - colon transversum; 6 - lig. hepatogastricum.

The weight of the human liver reaches 1.5 kg, its soft consistency, color is reddish brown, the shape resembles a large sink. Convex diaphragmatic surface P. (facies diaphragmatica) facing upwards and backwards. Front and especially the left Ii. thinner (Fig. 1 and 2). Lower visceral surface (facies visceralis) is concave. P. is right upper quadrant and through the epigastric region stretches in the left hypochondrium. Front sharp edge P. usually not out right costal arch to the outer edge of the right of the rectus abdominis muscle. Next lower bound P. goes obliquely to the junction of the cartilage VII and VIII of the left ribs. P. is almost entirely the dome of the diaphragm. Left it comes into contact with the stomach, bottom - right kidney with transverse colon and duodenum.

liver
Fig. 2. The liver (top): 1 - lis. triangulare deist.; 2 - diaphragma; 3 - lig. coronarium hepatis; 4 - lig. triangulare sin.; 5 - appendix fibrosa hepatis; 6 - lobus sin. hepatis; 7 - lig. falciforme hepatis; 8 - lig. teres hepatis; 9 - incisura lig. teretis; 10 - margo inf.; 11 - vesica fellea (fundus); 12 - lobus dext. hepatis.
Fig. 3. The liver (rear): 1 - lig. triangulare sin.; 2 - impressio gastrica; 3 - lig. coronarium hepatis; 4 - impressio oesophagea; 5 - lig. venosum hepatis; 6 - lobus caudatus hepatis; 7 - lig. falciforme hepatis; 8 - v. hepatica; 9 - lobus dext. hepatis; 10 - v. cava inf.; 11 - lig. v. cavae; 12 - facies diaphragmatica; 13 - impressio suprarenalis; 14 - processus caudatus; 13 - word " Collum " vesicae felleae; 16 - lig. triangulare dext.; 17 - impressio renalis; 18 - impressio colica; 19 - impressio duodenalis; 20 - vesica fellea; 21 - ductus choledochus; 22 - v. portae; 23 - lobus quadratus; 24 - lig. falciforme hepatis; 26 - a. hepatica propria; 26 - lig. teres hepatis; 27 - porta hepatis; 28 - tuber omentale; 29 - lobus sin.; 30 - appendix fibrosa hepatis.

The liver, with the exception of the top-rear surface, parastouei to the diaphragm, covered by the peritoneum. The transition of peritoneal with the aperture on points in the frontal plane referred to as coronary ligament (lig. coronarium hepatis), the transition in the sagittal plane - as sickle-shaped ligament (lig. falciforme hepatis)separating diaphragm surface P. right and left lobe (lobus hepatis dexter et sinister). Visceral surface two longitudinal furrows and one cross (P. gate) is divided into right, left, caudate (lobus caudatus) and square (lobus quadratus) shares. In deepening right longitudinal furrows is placed in front of the gall bladder (see), behind - the lower hollow vein. In the left longitudinal furrow is round ligament of the liver (lig. teres hepatis), formed from a desolate umbilical vein. Here it goes in venous ligament (lig. venosum)- the remainder covered venous duct. Under the peritoneum on top of Peterhof is a connective tissue capsule.
Included in the gate of the portal vein of the liver (see) and hepatic artery and went out of the gate lymphatic vessels and bile duct (Fig. 3) covered with sheets of the peritoneum, the components of the liver-duodenal sheaf (lig. hepatoduodenal). Its continuation is hepato-gastro ligament (lig. hepatogastricum) - small gland. Down to the right kidney from P. stretches sheet peritoneal - renal and hepatic ligament (lig. hepatorenale). Between P. and aperture on the sides of sickle ligaments are allocated the right and left hepatic handbags (bursa hepatica dext. et sin.), between P. and stomach behind the lesser omentum is located packing bag (bursa omentalis). Segments P. shown in Fig.

liver segments
The main segments of the liver: I - anterior segment: II - back segment; III - medial segment; IV - lateral segment. 1 - ductus cholcdoclius; 2 - v. portae; 3 - a. hepatica.
the scheme of the structure of the lymphatic vessels of the liver
Fig. 4. The scheme of the structure of the lymphatic vessels of the liver: 1 - chest lymph nodes; 2 - front group diaphragmatic nodes; 3 - rear group diaphragmatic nodes; 4 - the lower hollow vein; 5 - lower diaphragmatic artery; b - thoracic aorta; 7 - celiac lymph nodes; 8 - hepatic vein; 9 - hepatic lymph nodes; 10 - deep lymphatic vessels; 11 - the superficial lymphatic vessels; 12 - aperture.

Blood stream P. consists of these parts of the portal venous system, drainage system of the hepatic veins and the system of the hepatic artery. Arterial blood supply to the liver at the expense of the hepatic artery (from the system celiac artery), which, entering the gates of Petrograd, is divided into right and left branches. Often meet incremental hepatic artery coming from the branches of the celiac artery and of the superior mesenteric artery. Portal vein brings in Petrograd the bulk of blood. It is divided into equity of Vienna, of which originate segmental. Continue to share, branches of the portal vein first become migalkami, and then a thin septal the venules, which go into the capillaries - sine slices. This open septal arterioles, trailing branching segmental intrahepatic arteries. Thus, on sine waves flowing mixed blood. Sine waves are equipped with device for regulation of blood flow. The merger of sinusoidal formed a Central vein segments, of which the first blood flowing in Podmoskovye, and then collectively, Vienna and, finally, in 3-4 hepatic vein. Last opened into the inferior Vena cava. The lymphatic system P. (Fig. 4) begins okruhlicova and surface network of capillaries, emerging in the superficial and deep lymphatic vessels, in which the lymph flows either to the lymph nodes in the gates of Petrograd, or to subphrenic sites around the inferior Vena cava. In innervation liver participate wandering nerves and branches of the solar plexus, which is provided vegetative afferent innervation. Cm. also the Portal circulation.