Besides numerous small digestive glands, laid down in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, in the chemical processing of nutrients essential for large digestive glands, liver, and pancreas, as mentioned before. Cancer these in the period of embryonic development are formed in the wall of the rudiment of the duodenum, but growing, as if moved beyond it and turn into large bodies associated with it for life with their ducts through which the intestinal canal highlighted their secrets. However, from other intestinal digestive glands they are distinguished not only for its size, but also the essential features of the structure and functions.
The pancreas is located on the back wall of the abdominal cavity in the top division behind the stomach (see Fig. 6). The right end (head) is surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped curved duodenum, and the left one - the spleen. Iron consists of two departments: one of them is produced is very important for digestive juice that can say is universal because it contains enzymes for all major organic food substances. Another Department cancer is represented by groups of cells (called islets, which are not associated with its canals. Their secret is the hormone insulin is secreted directly into the blood and renders the essential influence on carbohydrate exchange (Fig. 14).
Fig. 14. Pancreas and route of excretion of bile.
Fig. 15. The liver (front view):
The liver is the largest gland in our body (Fig. 15). It weighs 1.5 kg, which is approximately 1/50 weight of an adult. A newborn baby relative size of the liver more - it is 1/20 part of body weight. The liver is located in the upper part of the abdomen on the right under the diaphragm. Direct neighbours are the gallbladder, stomach, duodenum, the right kidney. Bile duct empties into the duodenum together with duct pancreas. Everyone knows how looks the liver of animals, such as cows. Human liver in appearance and form very similar to this organ in animals. She has brown color and semi-fluid consistency. The structure of the liver is very difficult. It is formed by hepatic cells of the epithelium, by many blood vessels and nerves. If to consider a piece of liver under a microscope, it is easy to verify that its substance is divided into many smaller lobules, which have the same structure and separated from each other by thin layers of connective tissue, which stretch to the liver capsule, covering her outside. We all know that the liver secretes bile, which is a digestive juice, essential for the digestion of fats. Per day is produced from 600 ml to 1 l of bile in the intestine it hits as necessary, when fed a high fat diet. In the periods between meals bile is going in the gall bladder. Despite its small volume (about 40-60 ml), it may persist for a considerable amount of solids bile (acids and pigments). In the gallbladder, a rapid absorption of water, so its concentration of solids increases in 10 times. Thus, 50 ml of concentrated content gallbladder corresponds to approximately 500 ml hepatic bile.
For a long time scientists thought that the formation of bile and is the main function of the liver. But this opinion was wrong Role of the liver in the life of the body, as it turned out, is much more significant. Experiments on animals and the study of liver diseases person has shown that it is a vital organ. Off jelcheobrazovanie function does not cause violations of the organism, incompatible with life. Deleting same liver or complete shutdown of its functions inevitably leads to death within a short period of time (several days). The fact that the liver is, figuratively speaking, the Central chemical laboratory of the body that is involved in all types of metabolism (carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, water), in the process of blood and, most importantly, in the implementation of protective functions.