Penicillin

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It is difficult to specify the area of medicine, wherever used, penicillin and its medications. Especially widely it is used in surgery. For the first time penicillin was appointed in sepsis - General blood infection that is most commonly caused by staphylococci or streptococci.
Before the introduction of penicillin in practice most septic diseases lead to death. Now a rare fatal cases occur only when the sharp decrease of reactivity of the organism of the patient. Penicillinate gives excellent results in the treatment of osteomyelitis, carbuncles and boils, burns, wounds, phlegmon, abscesses and suppurative processes in the abdominal and chest cavities. Prophylactic administration of penicillin patients before surgery prevents the development of suppuration.
In therapeutic and pediatric clinic penicillin has found wide application in the treatment of pneumonia and laryngitis. Acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis is a disease once considered almost incurable, often influenced by the antibiotic. It is used with scarlet fever not only for treatment but also for the prevention of complications. In children receiving penicillin, reduced the duration of the disease and almost no complications. Antibiotics are successfully used for treatment of purulent meningitis caused by meningococci and pneumococci.
Penicillinate was an effective method for the treatment of syphilis. Having a strong effect on spirohet - causative agents of syphilis penicillin is the most harmless of all protivoepidemicheskih drugs.
Clinical data of recent years with certainty showed that penicillin effect is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea. The great importance of the antibiotic in obstetric-gynecological practice in the treatment of postpartum sepsis. It is successfully used for mastitis, nipple cracks and gynecological diseases infectious nature. In otorinolaringologii, in ophthalmic practice and in dermatology penicillin has also found wide application.
Treatment success in the introduction of penicillin depends on a number of reasons: on the sensitivity of a microbial pathogen to the antibiotic, timely initiation of treatment, the patient's condition and so on, it is Important that in the blood, and especially in the lesion was achieved sufficient concentration of the antibiotic.
Administered intravenously and intramuscularly, penicillin enters the blood, and from blood to different organs, tissue and body fluids and held them longer than in the blood. It passes through the placenta, and its concentration in the blood of the fetus is close to the concentration in the blood of the mother. Penicillin almost never penetrates into the brain, nerves, bone marrow. With the introduction through the mouth of its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract relatively small - it was partially destroyed in the acidic contents of the stomach.
In view of the toxic effects of penicillin for local action on the brain it is rarely injected into the spinal canal. Only in special cases it is prescribed in small doses and only in the form of crystalline benzylpenicillin sodium salt.
From the body of the patient penicillin is excreted in the urine (60 to 70 percent). Aqueous penicillin quickly excreted from the body, and this makes it necessary frequent (every 3-4 hours) intramuscular injection solutions. Soviet scientists have developed new drugs and methods for a long time to maintain therapeutic concentrations (such that are harmful to microbes) penicillin in the body. And this has helped reduce the number of injections, traumatic patient and complicating work of operating personnel.
Penicillin currently available only in crystalline form and has several medicinal forms. This is primarily sodium and potassium salt, a crystalline bulk powder of white color. They are produced in vials sealed by rubber stoppers and metal caps on 100 000, 200 000, 300 000 and 500 000 units. The activity of penicillin indicated in units of action. One international unit contains 0.6 micrograms (a thousandth of a milligram) chemically pure drug. Thus, in one milligram crystalline penicillin 1667 units, and the growth is sensitive to penicillin microbes oppressed 0,01-0,5 units of penicillin.