The penis

Penis (penis) - the male sexual organ.
In the penis urethra passes. The penis consists of three cavernous (cavernous) tel: two cavernous bodies of the penis and one of the cavernous body of the urethra, which goes into the head of the penis. Penis covered with skin, under which there is a subcutaneous tissue, fascia and protein shell. The skin of the penis forms a fold covering the head (the foreskin, praeputium). On the lower surface of the penis foreskin is connected with the head longitudinal crease, called the frenulum. Between the glans penis and the foreskin is placed slit-like cavity of the foreskin. Blood vessels of the penis are branches of the domestic private parts artery; venous drainage is carried out in much the femoral vein in the inner both the veins and venous plexus bladder. Innerviruetsya penis mainly branches both nerve and cavernous bodies - sympathetic fibers of prostate plexus. Lymph outflow from the penis occurs in the inguinal femoral, iliac and next - deep in the lymph nodes of the pelvis.
Function of the penis is done through tight blood corpus cavernosum, resulting in straightening (erection) of the penis. Normal erections comes under the influence of the Central nervous system (see Coitus).
You can select the 4 main groups in the pathology of the penis: development anomalies, lesions, inflammatory diseases and tumors.

Penis (penis) consists of two own corpora cavernosa and corpus cavernosum of the urethra. Through ligamentum suspensorium penis root of the penis attached to the ascending branches of femoral bone.
At the rear end of the cavernous bodies form a thickening bulbs. Each cavernous body of the penis is covered with dense fibrous capsule, called protein.
The head of the penis has the shape of a cone. Place of transition of the penis into the head is called coronary furrow, and the broad base of head - to whisk her. At the top of the head is the external opening of the urethra, from the lower edge of which departs fold, passing on the skin of the penis, the frenulum penis.
The skin of the penis at the coronal sulcus forms duplicator that surrounds the head, not being associated with her, and covered her in the form of cover (foreskin - praeputium). On the sides of the bridle on the inner leaf foreskin laid small glands that produce a secret (titanova gland). Under the skin of the penis is fascia and a thin layer of muscle.
The circulation is AA. dorsales penis, AA. profundae penis and AA. bulbi urethrae. AA. dorsales penis lie under the fascia of the penis, in the groove between the corpus cavernosum. Both arteries are accompanied by one v. dorsalis penis into which flows the blood of the cavernous phone On the back surface of the penis are two saphenous vein - vv. dorsales penis subcutaneae. Aa. profundae penis are in the centre of the cavernous phone Aa. bulbi urethrae branch in the bulb of the cavernous bodies of the urethra. The head of the penis is supplied by the blood of the cavernous bodies of the urethra.

Anatomy, embryology
Penis (lat. penis, membrum virile; GK. phallos) consists of two parts - fixed (pars fixa penis) and mobile, or hanging (pars mobilis, s. pendula). Free distal end is called a cylinder, P. h (glans penis), and fixed the proximal end - root P. o'clock (radix penis). Part P. o'clock from the root to the head is called the body P. o'clock (corpus penis), which distinguish the back (dorsum penis) and the surface of the urethra (facies urethralis).
The bulk of the penis consists of three cavernous body: two cavernous bodies P. o'clock (corpora cavernosa penis), third (surrounding the urethra) - the cavernous body of the urethra (corpus spongiosum penis).
Cavernous bodies of the penis at greater during spliced together in the form of two symmetric formations, tapering at the distal and proximal ends. The proximal end of the phone, not fused with each other, form the legs P. o'clock (crura are penis), which are fixed to the periosteum of the pubic bone. At the junction legs P. H. recorded a brace (lig. suspensorium penis) to the front surface of the symphysis. Providna ligament (lig. fundiformae penis) fixes the penis to a white line of the abdomen. Along the lower surface spliced part of the body is cut by a deep trench, which lies cavernous body of the urethra (see). Front end forms head P. o'clock, and back - onion (bulbus penis). At the top of the head P. H. opens the outer opening of the urinary tract (ostium urethrae externum). The rear side head forms a halo P. o'clock (corona glandis), behind the corona is the neck (the word " Collum " glandis). Cavernous bodies covered tunica (tunica albuginea corporum cavernosum penis). Between the two cavernous bodies at the expense of this shell is formed partition P. o'clock (septum penis). Head P. H. covered with a thin shell, from which to the urethra is the partition head (septum glandis).
The movable part of the penis is covered with a thin easily shift common skin (untegementum communae). The skin of the neck forms a fold, which covers the head and is called the foreskin (preputium penis). On the inner surface of it are the sebaceous glands (gll. preputiales), the secret of which is part of smegma. Bottom foreskin forms a bridle (frenulum preputii).
Blood to the penis arteries that are P. o'clock (a. penis, BNA), which is a continuation of domestic private parts artery and is divided into two terminal branches - back and deep (AA. dorsalis et profunda penis). From artery P. H. during its course originate artery bulbs P. o'clock (a. bulbi penis) and artery of the urethra (a. urethralis). Deep artery P. o'clock takes place in the thickness of the cavernous bodies of the party concerned. Back artery P. o'clock along the grooves on the dorsal surface P. H. located between the cavernous bodies.
Dorsal vein of the penis (v. dorsalis penis), unpaired, formed from the merger of small veins head P. H. and cavernous phone It runs longitudinally along the back surface P. o'clock, in the groove between the two cavernous bodies. The pubic joint back Vienna P. o'clock is divided into two branches, which penetrate into the cavity, pelvis and fall into private parts plexus (plexus venosus prostaticus).
In a protein shell, fascia and the skin of the penis, and in the partition head P. hours are a network of lymphatic capillaries. Lymph drainage is carried out three main superficial lymphatic vessels P. o'clock the Two of them go along the side surfaces P. o'clock, the third - on the back surface. All three vessels carry lymph in the superficial inguinal lymph nodes (noduli limphatici inguinales superficiales).
Innervation of the penis is dorsal nerve P. H. n. dorsalis penis), which is a branch of the private parts of nerve and is held together with the artery P. o'clock along the inner surface of the lower branches of the sciatic and the pubic bone. He propodaet urogenital diaphragm and is directed on the sides from the supporting ligaments in the back surface P. o'clock On the rear P. H. nerve gives branches to the skin and into the cavernous body and ends with branches in the area of heads P. H. Sympathetic innervation P. o'clock is cavernous plexus (from the lower hypogastric plexus), the fibers of which, penetrating into the cavernous bodies, anastomositis in the area of the head with the ultimate ramifications back nerve P. H. Parasympathetic fibers come from I-III of the sacral nerves (branches of the pelvic nerves).
The penis develops of two beginnings: external and middle embryonic leaves of the anterior abdominal wall from the membrane that covers the cloaca. First, the middle line is formed not clearly limited cloacal, or sex, the rise. Soon this elevation becomes genital tubercle forms male P. H. To the end of the third month sex wrinkles start to form around the head P. H. accumulation epithelium, of which forms prepucialna floor of the head.
Anomalies of the penis is most commonly associated with defects of the urethra or bladder (see Hypospadias, Epispadias). Anomalies such as the absence of the penis, the doubling of the penis, are rare. Attributable sometimes to anomalies of the penis phimosis (the narrowness of the foreskin, which does not allow to expose the head) is in most cases acquired disease, the consequence of balanoposthitis, moved in childhood. In the first years of life, the head of the penis permanently closed the foreskin is not due to anatomic its contraction, and the result is not yet come a branch of the foreskin from the glans. Anomaly structure of the flesh is korotkoi bridles, leading to bend the head of the penis during erection, the tears and breaks bridle.

diphallia
Fig. 1. The doubling of the penis (diphallia).

Anomalies of the penis diverse. Very rare congenital complete absence P. o'clock, often - embryonic development of the penis, mainly in hypospadias (see), as well as giant P. o'clock (megalopenis), which sharply cut cases makes sexual intercourse impossible. Rarely observed partial absence of cavernous bodies P. o'clock, full congenital cleft of the penis, doubling P. o'clock (diphallia, Fig. 1). When detalii in some cases, there are two normally developed polovoy member with normal urinary tract in each, in others both P. o'clock to most drivers have a common skin. To anomalies include also full absence of the foreskin, partial splitting her, congenital the narrowness of the foreskin - phimosis (see). Korotkoi bridles can be observed both at phimosis and normal width prepucialna holes. Nativas during erection, lore Flex down the head and body of the penis and makes an erection is painful. When mating, such bridle may overstrain and cause bleeding. Treatment is to cut a bridle in the transverse direction with the imposition of longitudinal seams.