The first attempts of blood transfusion

Speaking about the physiology of the blood, we can not stay on transfusion it is a powerful therapeutic tool, saving, especially during the war, tens of thousands of lives.
Already from ancient times the blood was considered the most important media of health, moreover, not only physical, but also mental. Therefore, on the one hand, with those or other diseases widely (especially in the middle ages) were used phlebotomy - remove "bad" blood; on the other hand, doctors are constantly trying to find ways of blood transfusion. However, this operation threatened so many dangers that one doctor XVI century, describing how could pour the blood, warned immediately that preparing for an operation, it is necessary to ensure a safe flight.
transfusionOnly in 1667 in Paris was first produced several successful transfusions. The man poured the blood of the animal, a lamb or a sheep. Scientists Denis and Emeric is justified by the fact that animals do not spoil your health nor indulgence in food and drink, neither strong passions, and therefore, the blood of sheep is more precious than human.
However, after several successful transfusions was followed by a number of deaths and the transfusion was said to be for this operation it is necessary to have not one sheep, and three: the first - from which poured, and the second, which is poured, the third - which pours. A blood transfusion was prohibited, and it took more than two centuries before it finally got spread.
About one remarkable man.
One of the pioneers of blood transfusion in the Soviet medicine was Alexander Malinovsky. The name is known mostly only his fellow doctors, specialists in the field of blood transfusion. But this man, not knowing his true name to be known by a different name very many. Everyone who studied philosophy at the University or at all, interested in it, read the book Century I. Lenin's Materialism and empirio-criticism, know the name Bogdanov. It is a party nickname Malinowski, a doctor by education. After the defeat of the revolution of 1905-1907, the group of the party of intellectuals swayed in their philosophical beliefs and began to slide on the position of subjective idealism wing Mach - Avenarius. In this group included Century A. Lunacharsky, in the Future, an outstanding leader of our party and state, but it was headed by A. A. Bogdanov-Malinovsky, as the most powerful philosopher. He wrote a three-volume work "Empiriomonism", and then C. I. Lenin was forced to postpone other things and to take philosophical weapons to defend the purity of Marxist philosophy. After his philosophical errors were discovered by Lenin, Bogdanov-Malinovsky from philosophy in the truest sense of the word, went away. Shortly after the publication of the book of Lenin, in 1908-1912 years, Bogdanov-Malinovsky has written two science fiction stories: "Red star" and "Engineer Manny". In 20-ies they were re-released under the true name of the author - A. A. Malinovsky. These books are interesting and its artistic merit, and content. Heroes they are used for interplanetary missions "antigraviton" - a substance with a negative gravitational properties, causing no attraction and repulsion of the aircraft from the planet. Fiction Jules Verne so far had not come! But most of the books by A. A. Malinovsky in artistic form drawn the life of the future Communist society; this is done under the guise of life on Mars is the planet that is older than the Earth, held in connection with this long path of social development. In 1913 had a two-volume manual of political economy, one of the authors of which was Bogdanov-Malinovsky; it was the reference book of the whole generation of Russian revolutionaries. In 1926 Malinovsky was one of the founders and the first Director of the institution, which has become now the Central Institute of blood transfusion in Moscow. In 1928, the Director of the Institute A. A. Malinovsky tragically died, putting on yourself dangerous experience on blood transfusion. History of medicine teaches - and it clearly showed centuries Veresaev in his "Notes of a doctor", that the most risky experiments advanced doctors often placed primarily on themselves. One of such experiments was worth Malinovsky life.
In 1913 came 1st, and in 1928-1929, posthumously, 2nd and 3rd volumes of his great scientific and philosophical works "tectology, or universal organizational science". This work Bogdanova-Malinovsky today appreciate our Soviet philosophers. He is considered the forerunner of Cybernetics Wiener and "General systems theory" L. von Bertalanffy. There are presented the principle of feedback and a range of other issues that are common to control and communication in the living organism and the car. It is important that the Wiener formulated the basic concepts of Cybernetics on the basis of their joint creative work with physiologists - Rosenbloom, cannon and other; he went from exact Sciences, they are from biology. A. A. Malinovsky was able to develop these issues, going from medicine to the exact Sciences. If the person Bogdanova-Malinovsky was not in the shade because of the philosophical errors beginning of the century, tectology would have been noticed and appreciated before. Maybe we would speak not about Cybernetics Wiener, and tectology Bogdanova-Malinovsky.