Blood transfusion

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Fig. 1. Private method blanks blood vials COLIC-1.

Blood transfusion (synonym blood transfusion) - introduction to the patient (the recipient) the blood of another person (a donor) with the medical purpose (to stop bleeding, replace blood loss, and so on). Blood transfusion is widespread after the establishment of differences in the blood group, development of methods of harvesting, conservation and storage. The blood is preserved by adding substances that prevent its collapse (anticoagulants) - most of acid sodium citrate and protivomaljarijnye drugs, such as rivanol, chloramphenicol. In the USSR used mainly solutions COLIC: № 7 for small (1:1) cultivation of blood and # 9 for a large (1 : 9) cultivation. Instead of natrium citrate and other anticoagulants used the inclusion in the system for taking blood ampoules with cation exchange resin. Passing through it, the blood loses calcium and loses the ability to shrink. Blood samples are taken from the donor produce, strictly observing the rules upgrades, special operating boxes, closed method; it's the blood from a vein donor enters the vessel in hermetically closed system of pipes (Fig. 1). The preservative solution in advance pour in a vessel and sterilized with him. When the two-step method of harvesting the blood transfusion station receives sterile vials with preservative made in the factory.
The use of preservative liquids allows you to keep property and sterility of donor blood. Blood products should be stored at temperature from 2 to 6 degrees. The overheating of blood (above 38 degrees) lead to the clotting proteins, cooling below 0 deg causes destruction of red blood cells; that, and the other makes the blood unfit for transfusion.
Just before transfusion for the prevention of severe reactions and complications it is necessary to inspect the vial of blood intended for transfusion. If there are cracks in the glass, violation of the integrity of the vessel, the absence of labels on the bottle to pour the blood is not. It is impossible to judge the validity of blood, if she was shaken up to examination. Benign blood should have a transparent plasma yellow without Muti and cereals, as well as a clearly defined line between the settled erythrocytes and plasma. Pink and especially red plasma indicates hemolysis (see) and the unsuitability of blood. The presence in the ampoule clots is a contraindication to its use (only with a few small clots can use the blood after its filtration). A bottle of blood incubated for warming at room temperature 154-2 hours, and in case of emergency warm hands 10 - 15 minutes the blood Temperature 18-25° optimal for transfusion. To warm the blood by other means is strictly prohibited, as it comes denaturation of proteins and education of toxic substances. After macroscopic evaluation of blood before transfusion is necessary to conduct the following studies.
1. To define a group of transfused blood and blood (see blood Group, RH affiliation (see Rhesus factor).
2. To perform serologic test for compatibility blood donor and the recipient. To do this from a vein or finger patient take in a dry test tube 3-5 ml of blood, centrifuged it or defend at room temperature for 2-3 hours. Pipette sucked off the serum. On a plate drip a drop of blood donor and 10 drops of serum recipient. See for 5 minutes the Emergence of agglutination (gluing of red blood cells), does not disappear after adding drops of solution izotoniceski sodium chloride, indicates that transfusion of this blood. Errors during the sample: a) in a tube of blood recipient type 4% solution of sodium citrate, and then instead of serum obtained plasma, and use the test, the latter is quite accurate; b) not observed bulk amounts (1 : 10) the blood donor and recipient; C) not maintained the time of observation. Reduction of the time of observation agglutination may not receive, because she slowed, increasing this time is drying serum.
3. To conduct biological samples: starting transfusion, pour in for 20 to 30 seconds. 25 ml of blood, then wait 3 minutes, again enter 25 ml of blood and after 3 minutes of waiting another 25 ml Thus, in 3 stages pour 75 ml of blood. If the patient does not have any disturbing phenomena, blood transfusion can be continued as the jet and drip method. The emergence of chest pain, back pain, shortness of breath, sudden pallor, cyanosis, chills, vomiting, drop in blood pressure testify about inadmissibility of further transfusion. Good condition of the patient allows you to continue transfusion. When a biological sample cannot pour the blood slowly and especially drip, mix it with other solutions.