Fractures of the skull

The skull has a certain degree of elasticity and may suffer significant injury without violating the intact bones. However, it is possible severe damage to the brain. In the mechanism of occurrence of fractures have the meaning: starobazarnaya the skull shape, different elasticity of its separate parts, the uneven distribution of bone arrays, and features landing skull on the spine. Uneven thickness of the different departments of the cranial roof, the direction of fingerprints in blood vessels and venous sinuses on the surface of the bone, and diplococci in their veins are thicker to a certain extent determine the topography of fractures of the code. Localization of fractures of the skull base primarily due to the alternation of massive departments bone thinning, plenty of openings for entry and exit of veins, arteries and nerves, and by the presence of pneumatic sinuses.
Under the influence of pressure on a limited section of the vault of the skull bone of him bending; stretched internal bone plate, which is broken first. At the further deformation of the skull fracture occurs and outer plates and finally complete fracture of the entire cross-section of the bone.
Fractures of the skull are divided into the fractures of the code (middle and upper divisions and fractures of the skull base. The latter are divided into fractures parabasal departments of the skull (the lower parts of the code and adjacent departments base of the skull) with damage to sinus and ear and fractures of the middle division of the skull base. The selection of fractures parabasal departments of the skull due to the possibility of infection in the cavity of a skull through pneumatic accessory sinuses of the nose and ear, especially in cases when there is a connection between the subarachnoid space and the external environment in the form of liquor of the fistula to the expiration of the cerebrospinal fluid through the nose (rhinorrhea) or ear (otaria). Such fractures of the skull with the formation of messages between the cavity of the skull and pneumatic sinuses of the nose and ear with the presence of rinoree and otorii include in the group of closed craniocerebral injuries, since there is no damage to the skin; in fact they are open penetrating into the subarachnoid space by the damage that may infect liquor spaces.
From a morphological point of view the following types of fractures of the skull: the cracks and slotted fractures, comminuted fractures, fractures with bone defect, perforated fractures, gaping.