Vectors

Vectors - invertebrates type of arthropods, spread vector-borne diseases among people and animals. To vectors include blood-sucking insects, fleas (see), mosquitoes (see), grapes (see Midges), mosquitoes (see), gnats (see) and others, as well as ticks (see) - exode, ulasovich, gamasina, Krasnoselkup and other Objects of transfer can be bacteria, spirochaetes, rickettsiae, viruses, protozoa and helminths. The transfer agent is mechanical and specific. In the first case between the transmitter and the causative agent of the disease there is no biological connection. For specific transfer there and pathogen is doing in the body of the carrier of a certain cycle of development (e.g., malaria), until the completion of which for a healthy organism, the vector is not dangerous. Infection occurs either during krovotechenie, or by contamination of the skin faeces, which contain pathogens.
Vector control is an important element of preventing they spread disease and must take into account the biological and ecological features of the species vectors.
Cm. also relapsing fever, Leishmaniasis, Malaria, Mosquito fever, typhus fever, Tularemia, Plague.

Vectors - invertebrates type Arthropoda, spreading of pathogens of human and animal diseases. To P. carry blood-sucking insects (fleas, lice, mosquitos, scratches, mosquitoes, midges) and ticks (Ixodes ticks, ulasovich, gamasina, krasnoselkoup transmitting infectious agents or invasions animal or the person at the time of krovotechenie or at crushing them on the damaged skin (lice). To infect and can not blood insects (ants, flies, cockroaches)that can carry pathogens on the legs and the hairs of the body.
Ways and mechanisms of infection of people and animals through the various vectors. They depend on biological relationships between P. and exciter. In one case, the originator, getting to the insect from the donor is not multiply, on its mouth parts, the integument or in the digestive tract. P. transmits a pathogen healthy animals or man with repeated blood sucking or contact with them. This method of transmission is called mechanical. So, mosquitoes and flies transmit to humans bacteria tularemia, and anthrax, flies and cockroaches - agents of enteric infections, etc.
Often the parasite multiplies in the body P. and passes it a part of their life cycle. In such cases, the transfer can occur not earlier the time when the causative agent will achieve its development in Petrograd infecting a certain stage. To effect transfer often requires that the agent has moved in certain tissues and organs of the vehicle, where it will be possible way out (salivary gland, colon). This transfer is a specific. Some diseases not only multiply in the body P., stored in it at all phases of metamorphosis (see), but can be transmitted to offspring P. transovarial, that is through the egg (see Transovarial transmission). When such a relationship with an agent chlenistonogie - not only Petrograd, but the owner of the pathogen (ticks and Dermacentor rickettsiae tick-borne typhus; ticks Ornithodorus and spirochetes return typhus; ticks and piroplasma and others).
Diseases that infect humans insects and mites, E. N. Pavlovsky called transmissible. This malaria and Japanese encephalitis transmitted by mosquitoes; leishmaniasis and fever mosquito, causative agents of which are transmitted mosquitoes; typhus and relapsing fever, transmitted by lice; tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne relapsing fever and endemic ricketsiosis, causative agents of which are transmitted by mites, etc. These diseases are characterized by natural focality (see), caused, in particular, long persistence of pathogens in the body of arthropods. The activity period P. determines the seasonality of human disease.
The vector control (see Disinsection) is an important method of prevention of vector-borne diseases. To combat P. must study of biology, masters, the period of their activity. Measures to combat P. occupy an important place in the practice of anti-epidemic work (see Devastate). Cm. also Insects, Parasites.