Population census

Population census - continuous mass of the population, conducted at a specific point in time according to the special program and organizational plan. Population census is conducted to study the population of settlement in the territory of the country, density, composition by sex, age, nationality, and exploring the socio-economic structure, level of education and other
The basic principles of the population census in USSR were the following. 1. The census covers the whole population, i.e., is a full count. Provided that the counting unit (the unit) serves everyone.
2. Odnomomentnoe holding on the whole territory of the country: the information collected in conjunction to a certain day and hour, uniform for the whole country (the critical moment of the census moment account of the population).
3. The population census program (list of issues, rules of conduct, documentation, methods of account is a unified throughout the country.
4. High speed, i.e. the account of the population in the census is made within a very short period of time. Accounting is the forwarding method, by walking through the counters of apartments, direct survey, fill a roll-call (on every resident) census forms according to the Respondent, without checking the documents or under the self assessment method by which the residents themselves fill out questionnaires, and counters check their fill and collect.
5. Conducted the census in those seasons of the year, when the movement of people is smallest.
To ensure comparability of data of several population censuses carried out after a certain period of time in compliance with the common methods and rules.
After the great October socialist revolution the population census was carried out 8 times. The first population census on the initiative of the Century I. Lenin was held in 1920, 1923, carried out a census of the urban population, and in 1926,1939, 1959 and 1970 were held the all-Union population census.
The total population of the USSR on January 15, 1970 amounted to 241 720 134 people, including 111 399 377 men and 130 320 757 women. The age structure of the population of the USSR (in percent to the total population) is characterized by the following data: 0-15 years - 30,9; 16-29 - 19,9; 30-49 years of 28.6; 50-59 years - 8,8; 60 and over and 11.8.
The results of the population census are of great importance for the current and perspective planning of the national economy, economic development, health, culture. Census data are used to calculate the indicators of health: physical development, morbidity, mortality; development of a network of institutions of health care, the right of provision of population with doctors, beds; for the study of human reproduction, to build tables of fertility, the average life expectancyto calculate prospective, population, etc.

Census - taking into account the population, produced at a particular time in a special program and organizational plan in order to study the size and composition of the population and placing it on the territory of the country.
Basic principles of modern P. N.: a) simultaneous holding on the whole territory of the country; collect information are located at a certain day and hour (usually at midnight); b) poimennoe records: information on every resident of the country is written on a sheet of paper or in a separate column of the list; C) the speed of implementation, that is, the census in a minimum number of days; g) the date, when in the conditions of a given country mobility of the population is relatively small.
The population census for the purposes of comparability of data, preferably in equal periods of time, observing as possible the same techniques. P. I. conducted through a survey, which is dedicated to producing census counters receive information by asking the persons subject to the census, or by the so-called self-assessment, in which the residents themselves fill sheets, counters same distribute clean sheets and explain the rules of their filling, and then collect and verify the entries.
If the census is taken into account in cash or permanent population or both of these categories. To cash population includes persons living at the time of the census in the given settlement, irrespective of how long they are here, do continue to stay here or not they are registered here or not. The permanent population consists of persons living in the area permanently, regardless of whether they are at the moment P. N. in the place of permanent residence or not. The population can be identified through the census and indirectly, if at the census form includes questions for a temporary residence permit and a temporary absence. The permanent population is equal in cash to the population with the addition of temporarily absent, net of temporary residing.
Regular P. N. were held in several countries of Europe and in the United States since the early 19th century. The number of countries that conducted P. N. gradually increased and by 1860 the censuses were taken into account for about 15%, to 1900-50%, and in 1955 - about 98% of the world's population. Most countries conducts a census every 10 years. Taking into account the recommendations of the UN statistical Commission on population about censuses in all countries of the world in the year ending in zero or very close to that year, about 70 countries held P. N. in 1959 - 1961, about 50 countries in the coming years. Many countries of Asia and Africa, liberated from colonial dependence, held its first P. N.
In pre-revolutionary Russia census was held on February 9, 1897 in Addition, as to this census, and after it was done P. N. individual provinces and cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Baku, Riga, Odessa and DRV the USSR there were four General census of the population - on August 28, 1920, on December 17, 1926, on January 17, 1939, and on January 15, 1959 in Addition, on 15 March 1923, carried out a census of the urban population. In P. N. 1959, as in 1939, was taken into account actual population, were allocated temporarily residing, and also considered temporarily absent. When preparing P. N. statistical authorities and local councils are working on preparation of regional maps and city plans, lists of settlements, to clarify the names of the streets and numbering of houses. Important tasks are the recruitment, training and coaching of personnel, preparation of organisational plans; across the country widely deployed mass-explanatory work.

The population census of 1959 was held as at 12 o'clock in the night from 14 to 15 January through population survey prepared by the counters; it lasted 8 days, from 15 to 22 January. P. N. subject to Soviet citizens and foreign nationals residing in the territory of the USSR, and Soviet citizens abroad. The population was enumerated at the place of residence, at least temporary, but not at the place of work or service. Counters bypassed room where he lived or could live people, recorded them in questionnaires; was recorded also temporarily absent from a number of the resident population. Passengers of long-distance corresponded in trains (23 hours 14 to 1 hour 15 January), at stations, ports, airports (from 0 to 3 hours of 15 January). In remote areas and the Far North (1% of the total population) P. N. under the terms of these areas was held in the summer and autumn of 1958
In P. N. answers to the questions of the questionnaire counters recorded according to respondents without checking the documents; data on children gave parents or caregivers, and seriously ill or temporarily absent household members. For the accurate account of the population in the absence of confidence that this or that person has passed P. N., if he should go elsewhere, counter filled him control form. In order to avoid double counting all temporary residents, and rewritten in trains, railway stations, ports, airports, etc., issued the certificate about passing the census. After the census was carried out continuous control crawls all premises. In conducting P. N. participated about 600 thousand meters, trainers, supervisors and other employees. The program of the population census contained 15 questions: about the attitude to the head of the family, groups, sex, age, marital status, nationality, native language and nationality, level of education; issues that characterize the vocational and social composition of the population. The preliminary results of the all-Union P. N. were published in may 1959, and the full results in 16 volumes (joint volume for the USSR and a separate volume for each Union Republic) in November 1962
The results of P. N. are of great importance for the current and perspective planning of the national economy, health care, culture, as well as for research and development issues associated with the development of the economy, improvement of well-being, sanitary-hygienic conditions of work and life, growth of people's culture.
Data P. N. are the basis for the calculation of some indicators with national importance: the size and composition of the population after the census of production and consumption per capita, the provision of honey. service, cultural institutions, housing and utilities.
The population of the USSR was made according to the census of 1959 208,8 million, and by the beginning of 1967, increased to 234,4 million people, or 12%; almost 4/5 of the population were born after the great October socialist revolution. The urban population increased from 100 million to USD 128.0 million, or 28%. When the census was 94 million men and 114,8 million women, or 20.8 million more than men. This rise mainly due to the consequences of wars, particularly world war II, in which the USSR has lost more than 20 million By the beginning of 1966 men was 106.1 million and women is 125.8 million, that is by 19.7 million more; this ratio was formed at the expense of older ages, in the age under 40 men on the amount of these ages more than women. While men and 23 years more, and 24 years less than women.
Obtained by census information about the distribution of the population by community groups were given the opportunity to compare the class composition of the population of the USSR in pre-revolutionary time and historical development of Soviet society. Society of the USSR consists of two friendly classes: the working class and collective farmers.
Data P. N. and current statistics give a possibility to calculate in the years after the census class composition of the population, the number of employees mental and physical labour, education and other Significant percentage of the population of the USSR is the intelligentsia - workers. Among them, which in 1926, only slightly more than 2.5 million people, in 1959 increased to 20.5 million people, and by the beginning of 1967 was more than 27 million people
Increased after P. N. the education level of the population with higher education from 18 to 27, with complete and incomplete secondary education - from 263 up to 333 persons per 1000 inhabitants.
Census data and estimates of the population after the census is used to derive indicators characterizing the state of health: provision of the population of honey. maintenance, such as the number of physicians and hospital beds per 10 000 inhabitants., morbidity of the population of single diseases, mortality rates and causes of death. Data on the distribution of population by age and sex are used in the study of morbidity and mortality of men and women in separate age groups, for the approximation of treatment-and-prophylactic help to the interests of different population groups. Data P. N. and subsequent estimates used in the study of health and physical development of children and youth. Data on the number and composition of persons who were beyond working age, are of special interest for gerontological of science in business of health protection and to maintain working ability of elderly people, as well as for the development and improvement of pension provision. The results of P. N. widely used during the in-depth study of population reproduction, to build tables of fertility, mortality tables, and average life expectancy, for calculations of prospective population for five years and longer periods of time.