Transplantation of organs and tissues

Transplantation of organs and tissues (synonym transplantation of organs and tissues). Transplantation of organs and tissues within one organism is called autologous transplantation, from one organism to another within the same species - gomotransplantation, from the body of one kind to the body of another kind - watertransportation.
Transplantation of organs and tissues, followed by a transplant engraftment only possible when the biological compatibility - similarity antigens (see), included in the composition of tissue proteins of the donor and recipient. In its absence tissue antigens of the donor cause the production in the body of the recipient of antibodies (see). There is a special protective process - the reaction of rejection, with the subsequent destruction of the transplanted organ. Biological compatibility can only be under the autotransplantation. It is not in Homo - and watertransportation. Therefore, the main task in the implementation of the transplantation of organs and tissues is overcoming the barrier of tissue incompatibility. If in the embryonic period on the body to influence some antigen, then after the birth of the body does not produce antibodies in response to the re-introduction of the same antigen. Occurs active tolerance (tolerance) to the alien tissue protein.
To reduce the reaction of rejection different effects that inhibit functions of the systems that produce immunity against alien body. To this end, apply the so-called immunodepressantnoe substances - imuran, cortisone, antilimfocitarnyi serum, and General x-ray irradiation. However, depression is a protective forces of the body and the functions of the blood, which can lead to severe complications.
Currently widely used autologous skin to close after-burn defects, successfully transplanted bone, cartilage, tendon , and so on, Gomotransplantation used for the transplantation of the cornea, cartilage. Becoming increasingly common kidney transplantation from one person to another. The greatest chances of engraftment arise in cases where the fabric of the donor and recipient is similar in its antigenic composition. The most ideal conditions exist in identical twins. However, the kidneys are transplanted not only from living persons, but also from corpses. The importance of the donor search, carried out by determining the compatibility of erythrocyte and leukocyte antigens of blood. There are a number of other samples that allows to set the degree of similarity between the organs and tissues of the donor and recipient.
Indications for transplantation of kidneys arise in sharp violation of their functions in connection with severe disease (chronic nephritis, polycystosis, and so on). Produced for many operations kidney transplants, and some patients live after surgery more than three years and it is working.
In 1967 Barnard (S. N. Barnard) with employees produced the world's first successful gomotransplantation heart of man. Further progress for organ transplantation are connected with the search of ways to overcome the barrier of tissue incompatibility.