Transplantation of the higher animals and man

Pages: 1 2 3

Attempts to transplant skin from one person to another was done in ancient times. However, the low level of development of medicine at that time made it hard for positive results. Getting into the wound of microbes in the absence of appropriate safety measures almost inevitable, and this often led to the festering wounds and the exclusion of transplanted skin. The existence of germs that cause festering wounds, it became known only in the second half of the last century after the remarkable discoveries of the French scientist Louis Pasteur.
In 1742 the medical faculty in Paris ruled that the operation skin grafting, designed by the talented Italian surgeon, Alacochi should not be used because of the inevitability of death skin graft after the death of a person during his life he was taken.
In the future, due to the progress of medicine, cases of skin grafting is a person performed repeatedly, and surgeons noticed that the skin transplanted within one organism, that is one place to another, grows better than the skin taken from another person.
Even in ancient times there were attempts blood transfusion from person to person. Blood is a liquid tissue that is washed all other tissues. It contains white and red blood cells, protein and other substances that are part of the body. Attempts to transfer the blood to another person for a long time failed because, in the first minutes and hours after transfusion is often observed severe complications, some fatal. Only at the end of last and the beginning of our century, it was found that all the people on the properties of their blood are divided into four groups, and only a blood transfusion with regard to these groups does not cause such complications.
A pioneer of blood transfusion in the Soviet Union is Century. N. Shamov, now full member of the Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR. In 1920-1921 Century N. Shamov, and N. N. Elansky concluded that transplantation of skin in humans should be more successful in case of selection of the donor (the person giving the skin) and recipient (the person, to whom this skin transplant) blood group. This provision is not yet sufficiently known and explained, but in principle it is true and very important for a successful engraftment of transplanted tissue or organ in humans. In recent years, the works of many Soviet and foreign scientists proved that not only the blood, but the rest of the tissues of the human body are divided into groups, and blood groups correspond to groups of tissues. A great contribution into the study groups of fabrics made of Soviet scientists I. L. Krichevsky and N. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, B.p. Kosyakov, 3. I. Roznava and others.
Recently conducted an interesting study for skin grafts in animals. In 1953 great success in the engraftment of transplanted skin in rats reached the Soviet scientists M. I. Efimov, and So Century. Musina. They watched the skin, transplanted from other rats, within 16 months, we have achieved a full healing.
In 1954 very interesting experiences with skin transplants in mice and rats published a foreign scientist Schaefer. He found that during the transplantation of skin adult animals of the same sex successful engraftment observed in 8% of cases, and adult cats a year and a litter - in 14 percent of cases. Proceeding from the view that hormones (chemical substances produced by the glands of internal secretion) contribute to individual characteristics of each organism, Schaefer investigated the influence of sex hormones on the successful engraftment of transplanted skin. In one series of experiments he castrated newborn rats and 3 months were transplanted them the flaps of skin from other individuals. As a result, neutered animals engraftment was observed in 42 percent of cases, and in non-castrated - only 14 percent.
Especially interesting results on skin transplantation in rats published in 1959 member of the Institute of experimental biology, Academy of medical Sciences E. A. satikov. He conducted two series of experiments. In the first series was produced transplantation small piece of skin from one rat to another. In any case, transplanted a piece of skin are not accustomed. In another series of experiments for the transplant of a large skin flap was mostly recorded engraftment. Let us mention also that this fact is very important for transplantation of whole organs and body parts.