Primary cells

Primary cells (skin rashes) - the objective is clearly defined by its characteristics (eye, by palpation) initial skin changes that reflect what is happening in her pathological processes and are important in the diagnosis of skin diseases (Fig. 1-12).
the primary elements of skin rashes

Primary cells (skin rashes). Fig. 1 and 2. Spot: Fig. 1 - syphilis roseola; Fig. 2 - pigmented nevus. Fig. 3 and 4. Nodules: Fig. 3 - syphilis papules; Fig. 4 - common warts. Fig. 5 and 6. The bumps are: Fig. 5 - ordinary lupus; Fig. 6-hillocky of sifile. Fig. 7 and 8. Sites: Fig. 7 - syphiloma; Fig. 8 - tuberose myxedema. Fig. 9. Blisters (urticaria). Fig. 10. Bubbles (herpes zoster). Fig. 11. Bubbles (common bladderwort). Fig. 12. Pustules (impetigo).


Spot (macula lutea) - change of skin color in a limited area. Are distinguished: 1) erythematous patches occur as a result of the expansion of blood vessels, inflammatory or reflex nature; they are pink or red, disappear when pressed (small erythematous patches called roseola, large - the eritem); 2) hemorrhagic spots occur as a result vyhozhdeniya erythrocytes of blood vessels in the dermis, are red, followed consistently in blue, yellow and green, do not disappear when pressed; 3) the spots occur as a result of the excessive content in the skin pigment have a yellow or brown color.
Blister (urtica) - a manifestation of edema of the dermis, badly formed, usually allergic nature; bespalatnoe rise on the skin in the magnitude of lentils to the palm, pink or white, very itchy, occurs quickly and quickly disappears.
The bubble (vesicula) is a manifestation of exudative changes in the epidermis - abdominal education in the magnitude of millet grain until the grain with serous content.
Bubble (bulla) caused heavy damage to the cells of the epidermis caused by exogenous (burns, frostbite) or endogenous (toxic or trophic violations) reasons; clinically is a major abdominal education with serous or serosanguineous content.
Abscess (pustula) - abdominal education with purulent content value from a pinhead to pea arising from pyogenic infection, most often localized in the hair follicles.
Bundle (papula) arises from education in the dermis cellular infiltrate or from the proliferation of the cells of the epidermis (epidermal papule), the dermis (dermal papule or epidermis and the dermis (epidermal-dermal papule). Papules are besplatnye compact education in the magnitude of millet grain to pea, circular, or polygonal irregular shape, different shades of red (inflammatory), grayish-yellow or normal skin color; they are resolved, without leaving a scar.
Tubercle (tuberculum) - according to form such a knot compact formation of small quantities arising in the deep layers of the dermis due to the development of infectious granulomas (syphilis, tuberculosis, deep mycosis). Tubercle allowed, leaving in its place atrophic trail, or subjected to decomposition with the formation of the sores heal the scar.
Site (nodus) - compact education type of infiltration, developing in subcutaneous adipose tissue, sometimes acting above the skin, size of a walnut to chicken eggs. Node, formed as a result of inflammatory infiltrate, is allowed without a trace; the site, resulting from the development of granulomas in chronic infections (Gunma with syphilis, laroma with leprosy), decays with the formation of ulcers or permitted with the subsequent atrophy of the skin.

Primary cells (skin rashes) is clearly distinguished by their external characteristics, primarily resulting changes in the skin, which is the reflection of certain taking place in the pathological processes. The combination of primary cells with the characteristics of the General condition of the skin (color, elasticity, flow and excretion of fat and others) and with secondary elements (emerging as a rule, from P. E.) defines the external symptoms of a disease.
The primary items include: spot (macula lutea), blister (urtica), the bubble (vesicula), bladder (bulla), abscess (pustula), papule (papula), tubercle (tuberculum), host (nodus).
The spots can be hyperemic (inflammation of the blood vessels to dilate), hemorrhagic (by penetration of vascular walls of red blood cells due to the rupture of blood vessels, or by diapedesis), age (in case of gauge or low content in the skin pigment), and also due to the deposition in the skin of some products exchange or artificial introduction into her colouring matter; there are spots of inborn and acquired.
Blister - besplotnoe, slightly elevated education, resulting from sharp, limited, skoroprechodaschie edema papillary layer of derma caused by increased capillary permeability. The development of a blister caused by the accumulation in the skin of histamine or substances gistaminopodobnykh actions.
Bubble and the bubble - abdominal education with serous or serosanguineous the exudate, localized in different layers of the epidermis or the subepidermal; Bubble externally is a limited polyaramide education, towering above the skin, size from 2 to 5 mm, sometimes with Central impression; is usually red and slightly swollen skin in isolation or in groups, is formed by palonirya degeneration (the change of cells thorn layer, the loss of connection between them, the penetration of exudates or due intercellular edema (spongiosa). Bubble - limited elevation of the skin in size from a pea to chicken eggs and more; develops only on condition of prior damage to the skin cells.
A prerequisite to the formation of a bubble under the action of external damaging agents is necrosis of the certain layer of the epithelium. Under the action of endogenous causes epithelium damage occurs as a result of various degenerative processes that violate normal communication between cells maleyevka layer or between the epidermis and the dermis.
The abscess is a cavity element containing a purulent exudate.
Papule (bundle) is a compact, bespalatnoe education, inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the emergence of which is conditioned by the development in the dermis inflammatory cell infiltrate, overgrowth of the epidermis, the deposition in the skin pathological products exchange, the tumor tissue.
The mound - the element clinically similar papule, formed in chronic infectious diseases (syphilis, tuberculosis, leprosy, some forms of subcutaneous mycoses). Develops in the deep layers of the dermis and, representing on histological structure granuloma, permitted, subject to the ulceration, with the formation of a scar or resolved with the development of atrophy due to violations of the structure of the dermis.
Site - education infiltrative nature, evolving in subcutaneous adipose tissue in acute or chronic inflammatory process, and also due to fat metabolism products or tumors. The outcome of the site is different: resorption, decay with ulceration, fibrosis, petrification.
Cm. also the Skin.