Pigmentation - pigment deposition in cells and tissues. Skin pigmentation usually require less or more in the content of the pigment melanin. In certain pathological conditions pigmentation can be caused by the deposition in the skin of other pigments, such as hemosiderin (see Gemosideros skin). At low concentration of melanin observed hypochromia (see Vitalie, Leucoderma and other), as well as Oromia (with albinism - congenital malformation).
High content of pigment (hyperpigmentation, hyperchromia) is observed as a physiological protective phenomenon in action on the skin of light (tanning), heat (net pigmentation after warmers), chemicals (for example, iodine tincture and other); as a pathological phenomenon hyperpigmentation is observed at increased skin sensitivity to light the xeroderma pigment (see). Hyperpigmentation can be manifested in the form of restricted spots (see Freckles, Naevus, Chloasma) or be spilled, what is called melasma; skin gets color from light yellow to dark brown.
Melasma can arise from various diseases of endocrine disorders (see Addison's disease), chronic infections (tuberculosis, malaria and others), lack of vitamins (see Pellagra), liver dysfunction, and toxic effects of some chemicals such as arsenic, quinine and other).
Emphasize professional melasma, developing people, working with the products of the distillation of crude oil (pitches, tar). In some products of petroleum refining are substances that enhance the action of sunlight (anthracene and other); as a result, their impact is developing increased skin sensitivity to the sun, occurs photodermatosis, leading to melanodermia.
Professional melasma should be distinguished from toxic arising from the General intoxication of an organism hydrocarbons. Toxic melasma may occur as a professional people working with the oil and coal oils, as well as Housewives in constant contact with kerosene, gas, stone coal. Clinically toxic melasma is manifested by poikiloderma (see) and is accompanied by weakness, headache, and other common symptoms.
Treatment of melanodermia: elimination of reasons causing it. In the case of occupational diseases required transfer of the patient to another job (outside of production facilities) and the elimination of contact with hydrocarbons. When toxic melanodermia recommended, in addition, to conduct a restorative treatment, vitamins (b, C and others).

Pigmentation is familiar to many trouble that prevent not less than the scars, wrinkles or acne. She is the staining of the skin darker because of the reaction of pigments to stimuli. Reasons for the emergence of many: the influence of sunlight, problems in the work of internal organs, hormonal failure or pregnancy. In some cases, pigmentation is temporary, while in others it remains for life. But in any case, you need to know how to respond to this phenomenon in order to make it as noticeable.
First of all, we need to find the cause of pigmentation. These include:
- lack of power. In the body clear deficiency of certain vitamins, which regulate the activity of the pigments. These include PP, C, A;
- hormonal disorders, pregnancy, age-related changes;
- violation of the internal organs, inflammation diseases;
- features of the skin, transmitted at the genetic level.
If you have unwanted pigmentation, don't immediately rush to the beautician to resolve this shortcoming. First, you need to consult your doctor to find the cause and fix it. Otherwise pigmentation will appear again and again. Moreover, in any case, it should be protected from the sun in summer, do not go outside without sunscreen.
To reduce the manifestation of pigmentation can-and home-traditional methods. These "tools" grow in the gardens, to get them is not difficult. However, you must be sure that the products are ecologically clean before use at problematic place to test the reaction of skin on components.
Brightening properties are citrus, especially the lemon. Instead of juice, you can use the appropriate essential oil added to the cream or tonic. Well brightens the skin juice of parsley and a mask with cucumber.
In many cosmetic lines have the means, has a bleaching effect, they also help to cope with unwanted pigmentation. Can also help scrubs and peelings, removes darkened the top layer of skin. But remember that after these procedures the skin is very vulnerable to the sun, in the worst case, place light pigmented spots, deduced by exfoliation, you risk getting contrast spot in the deeper layers of the skin, get rid of that will be extremely difficult.
In the salon you can offer a range of treatments, able to eliminate such cosmetic defect as hyperpigmentation. These include:
chemical peeling. As mentioned above, this procedure exfoliates the top layer of skin affected by pigments. Such a procedure is best done in the middle of winter, when the sun's rays of light;
- laser. Common method, which is based on the use of beams of different length, which gives the possibility to influence only on pigmented tissues without hurting others;
- photo rejuvenation. This method gets now a popular because it provides the opportunity not only to get rid of pigmentation, but also to improve the condition of the skin, make it more young and supple.

Pigmentation (from lat. pigmentum - paint) - the deposition of melanin pigment, causing the skin color.
In some pathological conditions pigmentation can be caused by deposition in the connective tissue layer of the skin hemosiderin, introduction of alien coloring substances. Melanin is formed and is contained in the cells of the basal layer of the epidermis, dendritics the Langerhans cells (melanoblasts, pigment cells); penetrated into the papillary dermis layer of pigment grain captured by histiocytes - melanophores. Pigmentation problems - dyschromia (see Dyschromia skin) -are expressed in the complete disappearance of pigment - achromia, or depigmentation (see), in the decrease of its content - hypochromia, or hypopigmentation, for example when Leucoderma, leprosy, and hyperchromia, or hyperpigmentation, such as chloasma. Melasma - diffuse hyperchromia (see melasma), and mixed dyschromia, or leucomalachite,- a combination of alternating areas of Hyper and hypochromic.
Achromia are congenital disabilities, such as white nevus, or universal, such as albinism, and acquired from the effects of trauma, chemicals, radiant energy, etc., after previous dermatoses (syphilis, leprosy, and others) or from unknown causes (vitiligo).
There are limited hyperchromia congenital - nevus, neurofibromatosis, Recklinghausen, incontinentia pigmenti, lentigo, accompanying other dermatoses (red flat zoster, etc.); formed on the ground of mechanical irritation (bandage etc), actinic (the freckles), thermal and chemical (prizerebel, essential oils, resins, etc.) nature. On the face localized chloasma, xeroderma pigmentosum okolorotova pigmented skin Brock, dermites medio-faciales Sezary, in great folds - acanthosis nigricans. A special group pigmentations be fixed rash of toxicodermia from salvarsan, antipyrine, sulfanilamidov and others, erythematous-pigment Laprida, pigment urticaria, and tattoos.
Melanodermia rarely regional (chloasma, linea fusca), more diffuse: bronze Addison disease, lice, malaria, tuberculosis, drug arsenic, gold, silver (argyria), bismuth, cachexia, some disengaging (myxedema tireotoksicski goitre), toxic melanodermia, uroporphyrinogen. Often melanodermia are net - from high temperature, melanosis Riehl, poikiloderma.
Mixed dyschromia or change their form and size (vitiligo, leprosy)or stay without changes (some sclerosing or trofimowa medicine, cicatrizing secondary or tertiary civility, Acropigmentatio symmetrica Dohi, characterized by the appearance of freckles on her face and leukomelanosis on the hands and other places).
Among pigmentations by hemosiderin deposition are ochre-yellow dermatitis legs, dark progressive dermatitis of Samberg, annular teleangiectasia purpura, Majocchi and other Cm. also Pigments.