Food products

Chemical composition and taste of food products is determined by their content of nutrients and other compounds (organic acids, tanning substances, essential oils, enzymes, alcohols, and so on). Chemical composition, nutritional value and the biological effects of food products are substances mixed. Some of them have primary importance as sources of plastic ("growth") substances (PP animal origin - meat, fish, milk, and so on); others are mainly energy sources (products of processing of grain, sugar, fat); third ensure delivery of the necessary biologically active components (vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, yeast, liver, milk products).
Chemical composition and nutritional value of some of the most common food products, see the table.
the chemical composition of food products The digestibility of food depends on various factors, including the ratio contained in the diet of animal and vegetable products, ways of cooking food from a person's age, state of the gastrointestinal tract. Herbal products are assimilated worse than animals, first of all this applies to proteins. The protein digestibility of food of animal origin reaches 96% ; from plant food is digested 70-85% protein, depending on the type of food and the nature of its processing. The digestibility of vegetable products grown slightly in the mixed food. Under normal mixed food absorption of protein is 84,5%, fat - 94%, carbohydrates - 94-96%.
When determining the nutritional value of PP should consider content of the waste is inedible parts of food products (peel potatoes, some vegetables, entrails of the fish and birds, bones and fascia meat, and so on). Some food waste up to 50% over-weight.
Spoilage of food caused by the decomposition contained organic substances (proteins, fats, carbohydrates). The accumulation of decay products specific causes unpleasant modify the organoleptic properties of food products. In normal conditions of storage of food products are divided into perishable and non-perishable. The former include meat, fish, milk, egg melange, many berries, edible herbs and others, who are under the influence of microorganisms quickly deteriorate. Non-perishable food products (grain, flour, cereals, pasta and others) contain, as a rule, little water. With the purpose of prolongation of the safety of the food they are subjected to special processing and preserving (see Canned).
In the implementation of the current sanitary supervision over the conditions of storage of food products must follow the following requirements :
1. Maintaining the temperature at preservation of perishable products.
2. Adherence to deadlines storage of food products.
3. Inadmissibility of joint storage of finished products raw products and the prohibition of storage of spoiled food.
4. Regular disinfection, cleaning and cleaning of the cooling chambers, barns, cellars and other places of storage of food products.
In the USSR the food quality is controlled by the state authorities. The main legislative documents are State all-Union standards (GOST) and technical specifications (MRTU, MOUTH ONE AT THAT).
Each standard covers all the most important questions connected with the quality of the product, results of physical-chemical and bacteriological indicators, rules of organoleptic evaluation, packaging, processing systems, research methods, and so on, When conducting sanitary expertise of food products may be declared provisionally applies, i.e. products which after processing can be used for food.
To decide on the suitability for the purposes of supply of non-standard product can only sanitary service. The food control exercised by the State inspection for the quality of the ministries and departments, supervision over the observance of sanitary and hygienic indicators of the sanitary-epidemiological service of the ministries of health.

Food products are divided into the animal, vegetable and synthetic.
Chemical composition, food properties and biological effects PP are substances mixed. Some of them have primary importance as sources of plastic and growth substances, others serve as the main source of energy materials, others support the receipt of necessary, vital biologically active components (see table). The most important part PP animal is a protein (see Proteins)that contains all the essential amino acids. The absorption of the protein PP animal reaches 96%. The absorption of the protein from vegetable PP is within the 70-85% depending on PP and nature of its processing. Use in certain proportion of animal and plant p.p. allows optimum nutrition protein by mutual Supplement their amino acid composition.
Sources of plastic substances, in addition to the protein can be attributed PP, rich absorbable calcium (see) and phosphorus (see). In this respect are unsurpassed milk (see) and cheese (see), calcium which is the most favorable ratio with phosphorus.
Energy sources in the human diet are foods that are rich in carbohydrates (see) and fats (see). The main sources of carbohydrates are products of processing of grain, mainly bread (see Bread, bread products), cereals (see). The absorption of carbohydrates reaches 94-96%. Due to their provided more than half of the energy value of the daily diet. An important source of energy are also sugar and sugary PP (see Honey, Confectionery, Sucrose, sugar and fats.
The third group p. P. constitute sources of biologically active components poor: vitamins (see), enzymes (see), phosphatides of trace elements (see). These include many vegetables (see), fruits (see), yeast (see), vegetable oils, and animal products - liver, fish fats, especially of liver, milk products.
Vegetables, fruits, berries put principal amount of ascorbic acid, P-active substances and carotene, and Pantothenic and folic acid, Inositol and other Natural concentrates of ascorbic acid and vitamin e are black currant, citrus fruits, in particular oranges, which along with these vitamins are especially high in pectin substances (12%) and Inositol (250 mg%).
High quality food products in the USSR is ensured compliance with the requirements of GOST and temporary technical conditions (WUT), which is mandatory for all organizations, producing and supplying PP Production of non-standard p.p. and falsification PP punished under the law.
To PP, partially made in the USSR, are surrogates, which may be issued instead of the natural p.p. only by special permission, such as barley coffee, fruit tea and other Surrogates must not contain any harmful substances.

Food and biological value of the basic food products
food and biological value of the basic food