Foodborne diseases

Foodborne diseases - acute illness resulting from ingestion of food products, infected by certain kinds of microorganisms.
To food-related disease refers to diseases caused by a group of Salmonella, Bact. coli commune, paracoli, Proteus, Staphylococcus, and botulism (see).
Foodborne diseases should be distinguished from those of food poisoning (see)that occur by eating foods that contain chemical poisons such as arsenic, lead, mercury and so on); it also includes the poison and vegetable origin (poisonous mushrooms, the LPV , and so on).

Foodborne diseases - acute intestinal diseases associated with food intake, infected with pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins. P. I. characterized by sudden and simultaneous emergence of mass diseases after eating food containing bacteria or their toxins. These diseases occur with symptoms of General toxicity and pronounced gastroenteritis, sometimes with fever, disruption of water-salt metabolism and cardiovascular disorders. Foodborne diseases are different from other intestinal infections lack of infectiousness and fast completion flash (after removal of infected products). There are the following two groups P. T.
1. Actually diseases caused protivosemnye by bacteria of the genus Salmonella and conditionally pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia and precisely coli, Proteus, rod Morgan). It also should include which type of P. I. diseases, which can sometimes be caused dysentery bacteria sonnei, Streptococcus and Cl. perfringens.
2. Bacteriotoxins or intoxication caused by consumption of products containing toxins microorganisms: Staphylococcus enterotoxin (staphylococcal food intoxication) and toxin botulinum bacilli (see Botulism).

Prevention of foodborne disease is primarily a strict veterinary-sanitary measures: pre-slaughter inspection of animals, sanitary maintenance slaughter-houses, observation of the slaughter and butchering carcasses, supervision of the sale of meat and dairy products on the markets. Interventions involve protecting food from contamination during storage, transportation, cooking and distributing food. For this meat, fish should be transported in a special easy to wash the car (box); need to store meat in the fridge in limbo; fish on ice. Cutting meat and fish, raw and intermediate products produced at different tables (cutting boards) different knives. Keep prepared food is not more than 4 hours in the cold, and before use should be subjected to heat treatment.
Staff, food warehouses, transport, kitchens, canteens etc., should be examined on hosting.
Patients necessarily hospitalized. Being discharged from the hospital after the disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease and one negative result of bacteriological research of stool (for workers of food enterprises, persons equated to them,three negative results of bacteriological examinations).
Workers of the food enterprises and persons, equated to them, after discharge from the hospital are not admitted to the main work for 10 days and during this period are threefold to bacteriological examination of feces and urine. In case of negative results of the research, they can proceed to the main the work, while positive, are not allowed to it for another month and during this time five tests of feces and urine. If the newly received negative result of research had been ill be admitted to the main work, while positive studies are repeated. In case of positive results of the survey (hosting) more than 3 months. these persons as chronic carriers move away from the main job for the period of carriage. Clinical supervision for survivors is carried out within 1 month; in the case of bacteria carriage - up to retrieve a single negative results of bacteriological examinations of faeces and urine. Workers in the food enterprises observation is conducted within 3 months. with monthly bacteriological control.

Prevention of foodborne disease is based on the prevention of food contamination by microbes and reproduction, and the destruction of germs during heat treatment products.
These tasks are solved with the veterinary-sanitary and health interventions that include veterinary-sanitary supervision of slaughter cattle, the control of the sanitary slaughter, slaughter and butchering carcasses, veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and veterinary-sanitary conditions in the markets, the prohibition of slaughter outside the slaughterhouse, sanitary control of food products. It is particularly important to observe sanitary rules at harvesting, transportation and storage (cold) of meat and other products, as well as rules technology, food handling, preparation and timely without delay the use of prepared food.
Cutting and processing of raw and cooked meat, raw and cooked fish should be made separately (separate tables, boards, knives). Systematic monitoring of the state of health of workers of food items over the performance of the staff the food and children's institutions of rules of personal hygiene and hygiene regime, to prevent contamination of food with dirty hands, flies, contaminated water or utensils.
Reliable guarantees from foodborne mandatory re-heat treatment products directly before taking in food (this warranty is excluded if the products thermostable enterotoksina Staphylococcus).
Actions for bakterionositelej - survey on carriage of Salmonella all coming to work in food establishments, children's and medical institutions, as well as regular (once a year) examination of workers of food enterprises and persons of equivalent status. Discharged from hospitals ill with salmonollosis only after full recovery and negative results of bacteriological examinations of faeces and urine. Ill with salmonollosis workers of food enterprises, children's and medical institutions after discharge from hospital are allowed to work only after the negative results of the three bacteriological examinations of faeces and urine. In addition, these workers within six months monthly examined bacteriologically. They were not allowed to work at detection of Salmonella at least once in a month subjected five bacteriological examination (faeces and urine). Ill with salmonollosis children attending day-care facility after discharge from hospital are in the first month 3-fold to bacteriological examination. In the future, within 3 months they examined once a month.
In order to prevent staphylococcal diseases do not allow persons with blotchy processes on hands and external mucous membranes (tonsillitis, rhinitis) for working at food enterprises, food units of hospitals, kindergartens and other institutions, conduct pasteurization of milk and reliable sterilization of canned fish in oil.