Food

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Under-nutrition is the process of absorption of foodneeded to sustain life, health and the health of the person. Malnutrition leads to a violation of the functions of individual systems and to the General weakening of the body - exhaustion, malnutrition and other diseases. The deficiency cause the development of hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis (see Vitamin deficiency). Malnutrition especially negatively affects children, restraining the growth and development of the child. Excessive diet leads to obesity, contributes to atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, metabolic disorders and other diseases. A full, balanced diet is an important factor of strengthening of health of the population and reduction of morbidity. Rational nutrition ensures the supply of plastic, energy and regulatory substances necessary for normal functioning of the body. To plastic substances, i.e. substances that are used in the body for construction of new and replacement of old cells and tissues, are proteins (see), partially fats (see) and some mineral substances (see) - calcium, phosphorus and other Energy substances (carbohydrates, fats, partially proteins) are sources of energy that are required in the process of life. Regulatory substances, vitamins, biomicroelements and others involved in the metabolism and performing catalytic and other regulatory functions.
In table. 1 provides data daily needs in calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates major groups of the adult population living in settlements with a developed public service.

Table 1. The daily requirement for calories and nutrients for adults
Population (labor activity) Age in years (men) Kcal Proteins (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrates (g)
just including animals just including plant
I group
The person whose work is not connected with the expenditure of physical work or requires little physical effort
18-40
40-60
2800
2600
96
89
58
53
90
81
27
25
382
355
II group
Workers in industries with mechanized labour conditions and the service sector, whose work does not require great physical strain
18-40
40-60
3000
2800
99
92
54
50
97
91
29
27
413
385
Group III
Workers in industries with mechanized labour conditions and the service sector, whose work is connected with considerable physical stress
18-40
40-60
3200
2900
102
93
56
51
103
94
31
28
445
401
IV group
Employees of enterprises with non-mechanized labor conditions of medium and high severity
18-40
40-60
3700
3400
108
100
54
50
120
110
36
33
522
480
Notes: 1. The table shows the data calculated for men. Due to less intensive metabolism and lower body weight, the need for calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates for women is estimated at 15% below value.
2. For the population living in localities with less developed public service, is added to 200 kcal to quantities daily needs, in this table.

For athletes in the days of intensive training and competitions defines the following values of daily needs in calories and nutrients: for men - 4500-5000 calories, proteins 154-171 g, fat 145-161 g, carbohydrates 615 - 683 g; for women - 3500-4000 calories, proteins 120-137 g, fat 113-129 g, carbohydrates 477-546 g per day. For elderly people living in settlements with a developed public service and not engaged in physical labor, the recommended following values daily needs in calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates (table. 2).

Table 2. The daily requirement for calories and nutrients for the elderly
Floor Age (years) Kcal Proteins (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrates (g)
just including animals just including plant
Men 60-70
Over 70
2350
2200
80
75
48
45
76
71
27
25
320
300
Women 60-70
Over 70
2100
2000
70
65
42
39
66
61
23
21
288
277

The need of the elderly in calories and nutrients is increased by 100-150 calories when staying in settlements with less developed public service, and with the active forms of recreation.

  • Nutrition of pregnant women and nursing mothers
  • Child nutrition
  • Proper nutrition for health