Child nutrition

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Rational nutrition of sick children is of great importance in the complex sanatorium treatment. It should ensure normal growth and development of the child, and promote the restoration of impaired functions, coverage increased energy expenditure of the body due to the prolonged stay on the air, exercises, hydrotherapy. Therefore, the norms of food, and all food substances in children's sanatoria 10-15% increased caloric content. In accordance with the expenses, approved by order of Ministry of health USSR № 419 dated 9 February 1984, per child per day (II trade zone) in tubercular sanatorium for children under 3 years relies 98 K., from 3 to 7 years - 1 R. 22 K., from 7 to 14 years - 1 R. 44 K. In the preparation of sanatorium diet with increased caloric necessarily take into account the age ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates (1:1:4), mineral salts, water, vitamins. On average, a child should receive per 1 kg of body weight of 3.5 g of protein, 3.5 grams of fat, 12-15 grams of carbohydrates. For children of school age justified daily diet with the maintenance 118 grams of protein, 110 g fat, 465 g carbohydrates (calories 3225 cal), for preschool children - 80 g protein, 80 g fat, 320 grams of carbohydrates (calories 2650 kcal) [Ladoga K. S., 1980].
Proteins are the basis of all tissues of the human body. Source of protein in the diet are animal products, many of them found in plant foods. Proteins are essential to the child as a plastic material, as an important ingredient for ensuring the activity of the nervous, endocrine, immune system, therefore, in no event it is impossible to reduce their content in the diet of children. The most biologically valuable animal proteins, they should not be less than 70-75% of the total number of protein. Irreplaceable baby food is milk, it contains the full protein, rich in essential amino acids in balanced proportions, easily digestible fats, milk sugar, salts of calcium, potassium, phosphorus. On the day the child should receive 500-600 grams of milk. Dairy products are important in clinical nutrition. Natural milk can be given to children only after thermal processing. If poorly portable milk it is replaced with fermented milk products. Of great importance cheese containing high-grade proteins that are better absorbed than the milk, mineral salts, fats, vitamins. In the day of children should receive 50-55 g of cottage cheese. Cheese is also very nutritious dairy product, but not always well absorbed by the children. In the daily diet includes 8-10 g of cheese, 15 grams of sour cream. Meat and fish are the main sources of animal protein. In the day of children aged 3-7 years receives 125 g of meat, 50 g of fish, over 7 years 190 g of meat, 70 g of fish.
The meat contains a lot of extractive substances, which stimulate gastric secretion, increased appetite, stimulating effect on the Central nervous system, so it is not recommended to give a dinner to children this product. Meat is better absorbed in a boiled kind, than fried, in the form of meatballs. The number of extractive substances can be reduced by cooking of dishes of clinical nutrition. Valuable product of baby food is eggs. They are assimilated better boiled (96-97%)than crude. Children can get a day not more than 1 egg (including the use of it during cooking). Not less useful product is fish. In therapeutic feeding children can use low-fat fish (sea perch, perch, cod, navaga).