Planning of settlements

Planning of settlements - placement in a particular area businesses, homes, cultural institutions, transport and other functionally interconnected elements of a national economy.
Basic hygienic principles of planning of settlements in the USSR are: the selection of the most healthy territory for settlement, the use of the Wellness goals of local natural factors, the improvement of territories, the correct location of the main objects of construction, observance of the normal density, landscaping and implementation of all types of amenities, ensuring the most favorable conditions of life, work and rest of the population.
Currently in industrialized countries is urbanization, i.e. the concentration in large cities, industry and population. This causes excessive concentration of buildings, consolidation of cities through the construction of large buildings, but result in compaction of the population and the difficulty of compliance with hygiene requirements. Along with the projects of reconstruction of existing cities have any ideas of creation of cities, in which will be located industrial enterprises, settled serving their workers and employees, and cities-gardens - richly landscaped settlements which will leave part of the population of large cities.
The main principle of planning of settlements in the USSR is the functional zoning, i.e. the city territory is divided into zones: residential buildings (residential zone), industrial, municipal, warehouse and transport. Under residential area away the most healthy and comfortable areas, about 20% of which is occupied by green areas. The main element of the plan this zone is residential quarter, where residential houses, children's, cultural and trade institutions, green areas, playgrounds and so on, bounded on all sides by the city roads. When building separate small buildings area of the residential quarter is 2-4 hectares, and in high rise building - 6-12 hectares In the practice of modern planning of settlements entered the dismemberment of the residential area of major cities in the neighborhoods are groups of residential areas located between the intercity highways traffic and including all necessary institutions to serve the population. The Central point of the residential zone is an administrative centre. The industrial zone is located taking into account the prevailing direction of movement of the air in this area, in the leeward side of the settlement, downstream of the river and is separated from the living area planted a sanitary-protective zone, the width of which is determined by sanitary standards (CH 245-71). Utility warehouse and transport zones, which are the food and fuel depots, bus parks, railway stations, ports, airports, etc. are situated on the periphery of the city and also separated from the living area of the sanitary-protective zone.

The layout of the collective farm of the village of 100 households And residential area; B - utility and production area: 1 - green house farm; 2 - animal farm; 3 - storage yard; 4 - brigade stables; 5 - repair-household yard.

The basis of modern planning of rural settlements lays a clear division into zones: residential, commercial, industrial and public center (Fig).
Between household and industrial and residential area provides green sanitary protection zone, the width of which is determined by the nature of the business in the manufacturing sector and its capacity. A clear division into 2 areas envisaged in the planning of field camps: residential area (dormitories, a nursery, a dining-room, bath and so on) and economic and production (power plant, repair shops, Parking lot, etc).
The main principle of planning resorts (see) is zoning. Provides for the creation of 4 zones: sanatorium where all the sanatorium, medical and cultural institutions, areas of settlement of the staff, the economic zone and utilities and transport facilities and zones of enterprises, serving the resort. Special attention in planning resorts paid to the use of local natural resources and gardening. Surrounded by resorts organize zones of sanitary protection. Cm. also, Water, Housing, healthcare Legislation, sewage, Soil, Sanitary protection of atmospheric air.

Planning of settlements is a feasible solution of socio-economic, architectural, construction and sanitation issues in the construction of cities and villages, providing the most favorable conditions of life, work and rest of the population.
As a result of increase in the urban population, especially in this century, in industrialized countries, there is a process of urbanization (the concentration in large cities, industry and population. Under capitalism, the growth of industrial and administrative centers caused unplanned chaotic development of cities with comfortable areas for the bourgeoisie and the slums for the proletariat, with serious conditions for further development of the industry and housing construction.
Along with the projects of urban renewal, the idea was to create cities-satellites intended for industry, the output outside of the city, and the settlement of workers, engaged in these enterprises. An example of such a satellite town in the USSR is the city of Zelenograd.
In the USSR the construction of new and reconstruction of existing settlements is determined by the development plan of national economy of the country. This allows for the development of cities to implement the basic principle of Soviet urban planning is a rational complex organization of production areas, residential areas, public and cultural institutions, transport, engineering equipment and amenities, providing the best conditions for work and rest of the population. The construction in the USSR regulated by government regulations providing for all settlements drafting plan.
The most important conditions-plan settlements in the USSR are: observance of hygienic standards and guidelines when selecting a site for the construction, functional zoning of cities and villages, at the location of the main objects of industrial, housing and social and cultural construction; maintenance of optimum density of settlement; landscaping and implementation of all modern kinds of an accomplishment of settlements.
Hygienic standards and recommendations are developed on the basis of studies of lessons sanitary supervision of the planning and building of settlements and are aimed at addressing issues that create healthy and comfortable living conditions, work and rest of the population (see water Supply, sewage, Soil Sanitary protection of atmospheric air, Sanitary legislation). In the planning of settlements must adhere to the principle of division of the territory into functional zones: industrial, transport, municipal, warehouse, residential and recreational area (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Scheme of functional division of the city territory: 1 - residential (residential) area; 2 - area hospitals; 3 - sector of the higher educational institution; 4 - an industrial area; 5 - the railway right of way; - the territory of the river port; 7 - the territory of airport; 8 - the territory of the city Park; 9 - the territory of forest Park; 10 - protective green zone; 11 - area of warehouses; 12 - the source of water supply; 13 - Sewerage treatment facilities; 14 - field composting; 15 - nursery; 16 - cemetery.

Basic structural unit residential district is a neighborhood that consists of a group of residential buildings, with the necessary institutions for the daily maintenance of the population of the garden for recreation, sports grounds and other Residential area and a recreation area in order to protect against gases, smoke and dust, due to the work of industrial enterprises and transport, are separated from the other green zones of sanitary protection gaps in accordance with the sanitary norms (SN-245-63).
When selecting a site for the settlement and pay attention to sanitary and hygienic assessment of climate, soil and hydrological conditions, state of green plantations, conditions of water use and other Unsuitable for construction consider areas with high level of groundwater, wetlands subject to flooding, landslides, etc.,
In individual cases, allow the use of such areas, but only after the necessary measures for their rehabilitation.
In the planning of settlements and their development should be used favourable climatic factors and relaxed undesirable effects, such as severe winter winds, failure ultraviolet radiation, excessive insolation and temperature etc.
It is especially important to take into account climatic factors during the building of microdistricts. So, for settlements of the Far North, with its strong winds and low temperatures adversely affecting the living conditions of the population, envisage special methods of development of micro-districts and residential complexes (Fig. 2) covered streets-galleries linking residential building with institutions of service. In areas with a hot climate it is necessary to provide protection against overheating - maximum shaded walkways and pavements, good ventilation housing blocks and turning them towards green areas and water surfaces, landscaping free territory in combination with moisture coverings and so on accommodations and premises of children's and medical institutions in areas with a hot climate cannot be oriented to South-West and West; it is necessary to widely apply shading device. In areas where overheating protection is not mandatory, when determining the size of the gaps between buildings and orientation of buildings follow Sanitary norms and rules for the insolation of residential and public buildings and residential development of populated areas" (№ 427-63).

Fig. 2. Examples windproof building of microdistricts of settlements of the Far North And the neighborhood 4400 residents; B - estate in 2100 inhabitants.

Hygienic criteria for establishing these standards is the need to provide the premises of inhabited and public buildings and housing developments daily direct solar irradiation at least 3 hours for the period from March 22 to September 22.
The struggle with the city noise (see) is an important sanitary objective in the planning of human settlements. In the USSR act Sanitary standards for acceptable noise in residential houses on the territory of residential development" (approved by the CIO of the USSR, № 535-65). Establishes the following maximum permissible cumulative sound levels: living room - 30 96 And (measured on a scale of a sound level meter), for recreation sites and areas adjacent to houses,-40 dB A. measured or calculated cumulative sound levels amend depending on the nature of the noise, the time of day, location of the object, etc. to protect the territory of micro-districts and residential premises against external noise is ensured by a complex of engineering and planning activities, including a rational system of streets with the release of city and district roads and residential streets, the appropriate building adjacent to the streets of residential areas (indention from the red line in the depths of the neighborhood, landscaping streets and buffer strips between the roadway and residential buildings, and so on).
Of great importance in reducing the noise intensity is the correct organization of the territory of the neighborhood: the selection of areas for children to play and physical training, accommodation providers
in separate buildings, landscaping free territory of microdistrict (not less than 40-50%).
Hygienic recommendations on the organization of cultural-household and medical-preventive maintenance of the population of cities and villages in the planning of settlements related to the network of these institutions in the district, a residential area and the city, throughput and their placement on the territory taking into account the optimal radius of service, convenience of use and the possible impact on the population's living conditions (noise, vibration and other).
The system of maintenance of the population corresponds to the layout of the residential area and the city.
A special group service establishments are sanatoriums, rest houses, tourist bases, camps, intended for short-term and long-term treatment and rest, placed in a suburban area.
The daily rest of the population must also conform to the structure of the residential area. On the local sites for a group of residential buildings must be designed playgrounds young children and areas for recreation the elderly and the sick.
Within the residential area include garden areas with places for quiet recreation and sports. Residential area should have a larger sports facilities (stadiums, swimming pool etc), garden and spectacular institutions within 10 min. walk.
The most important principle of planning of settlements is to create the most favorable sanitary conditions for the rural population, for the gradual transformation of the collective farms and villages of state farms into larger settlements of city type with comfortable dwelling houses, public services, utility companies and medical institutions.
In rural area the individual one-storey building is designed in the form of square blocks 2-4 hectares, plots of land and outbuildings for animals and equipment. The size of household plots are set in accordance with the Charter of the collective farm. At construction of two-story row houses (state or collective Fund) each family occupies a separate apartment, which has an exit to the plot, the size of which allow not only to lay the garden or vegetable garden, but also to keep the personal use of the cattle and poultry. Area of state or collective farm sectional houses (2 or more floors) is designed as a compact building without farm sites with a high level of accomplishment (district heating, water, Sewerage). In the zone is also a social centre of the village (village Council, Board of the collective farm, cultural and educational institutions). Schools, kindergartens and nurseries have between residential areas in areas remote from the old town.
Hospital outpatient clinic have on the most favorable area, if possible near the green areas. In projects of building of rural settlements necessarily reflect the functional division of territory to the residential and industrial zones, the gap between them depends on sanitary and veterinary requirements. These projects include activities for improving sanitary improvement (centralized water supply, removal and disposal of solid and liquid waste, gardening, external landscaping).
The most appropriate solution sanitation and urban development issues in the building of settlements is possible if the regional plan of economic, industrial, agricultural and resort destinations. The district planning allows to solve problems of industrial settlements, organization of recreation, comprehensive plans for development (water supply, Sewerage, heat and electricity), the organization of transport, etc., providing the most favorable conditions of life, work and rest of the population.
Cm. also Housing.