Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery - a surgical intervention in order to restore function and form a partially or completely missing bodies, correct congenital or acquired defects and deformations. A number of plastic surgeries performed solely for cosmetic purpose (see Cosmetic surgery). Plastic surgery occupy an important place in all the surgical specialties in surgery of organs of digestion, cardiovascular surgery, respiratory system, traumatology and orthopedics, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, dentistry and other plastic surgeries are widely used as a patient's own tissues (autoplastika)and tissue taken from corpses homoplastic), various plastics and metal (stress).
The technique of plastic operations is diverse. One of the most common plastic is the hernia gate when graineterie. For plastics series of hollow organs with success are applied areas bowel - plastic scar narrowed esophagus thick or thin intestine (Fig. 1), the creation of artificial vagina (if underdevelopment) of the colon, the substitution of the bladder and ureters when they are injured or malformations and other

Fig. 1. The substitution of the esophagus by a section of the jejunum. Fig. 2. Arthroplasty with ankylosis of the knee joint. Fig. 3. Plastic tendon flexor IV finger brush


Fig. 4. The substitution of the defect of the nose Filatov stem: 1 - move Filatov stem from his belly to brush; 2 - the substitution of the defect.

When plastic operations on body surface widely used by moving the skin flaps on the restored area with adjacent locations or other parts of the body (see plastic surgery of the Skin). Proposed B. N. Filatov methods of forming of a skin flap on the supply leg (Fig. 4) significantly expanded the scope of skin plastics, allowed to use skin the flaps to create the missing or lost authorities (fingers, penis, nose, ears and so on). The developed technique allows to produce the reconstructive scalped skin with a good result.
Plastic surgery is widely distributed in traumatology and orthopedics - auto - and homoplastic bones when false joints and bone defects (see Bone grafting), arthroplasty with ankylosis (Fig. 2), osteotomy (see) on deformation and distortion of the limbs, restoration of function of a brush through transplantation tendons with their injuries (Fig. 3), a division of the fingers when they fusion (the syndactyly), reconstructive surgery with a change of the fingers and so on, Move the working muscles in place paralyzed provides good functional results in consequences of a poliomyelitis.). Muscle plastic is used for filling pathological cavities in the bones when osteomyelitis, for fillings residual pleural cavities in the pleural empyema and other
The success of modern chemistry has significantly expanded the possibilities of plastic surgery. Synthetic materials allow to substitute for the big defects of the vessels, to eliminate the defects of the heart and main vessels, producing plastics at large hernias, close defects of the skull, etc. Scope P. O. extensive, it includes the restore operation of the larynx when cicatricial stenoses, elimination of all kinds of fistula elimination of rectal prolapse and uterus, repair ligaments of the knee joint and many other operations.

Vera Alentova after plastic surgery
Vera Alentova before and after bad plastic surgery.

Plastic surgery used to correct defects and deformations areas and restoration of form and function; produce them with the greatest beauty usefulness.
With congenital cleft of upper lip plastic surgery (cheiloplasty) produced in maternity hospitals for 2-4-th and 11 - 14th day of a child's life. If the operation within that period not held, then the child should be sent to the operation not earlier than 2%-3 months. Surgery for congenital cleft palate is usually produced at the age of 5-6 years. Surgery concerning the deformation of a person (for example, underdevelopment or excessive development of the lower jaw) is recommended at the age of 17-19 years, when the formation of the facial skeleton mostly completed.
When the defects of soft tissues of the face and jaws emerged after removal of benign tumors, plastic surgery performed simultaneously; after removal of malignant tumors begin to plastic surgery in 1 - 1,5 year.
When plastic operations on face use all known methods: plastic local fabrics, flap on the leg, Filatov stalk and free grafting of tissues (skin, bones and so on); widely used bone gomotransplantation (see Homoplastic).
Plastic surgery on the face produced in specialized hospitals.
Cm. Cosmetic surgery, Rhinoplasty.

Plastic surgery - a surgical intervention, aimed at restoration of form and function fully or partially lost authority, and eliminating congenital or acquired defects and deformations of the human body. P. O. produced by the methods of moving the patient's own tissue (autoplastika) and tissue taken from another person (homoplastic) or animal (heteroblastic). It is also possible the use of synthetic materials (stress). The basic conditions of healing tissues: observance of asepsis, atraumatic operation, careful hemostasis and ensuring complete peace of the operated area.
A large group P. O. are so-called cosmetic surgery - recovery or changing the shape of the nose, lips, ears, elimination of wrinkles on the face and neck, restoration of the mammary glands (Fig. 1), the removal of hanging skin and fat folds, etc.,

Fig. 1. The restoration of the mammary glands: 1 - to plastic surgery (hypertrophy and sagging of the Breasts); 2 - after operation.