Brachial plexus

Brachial plexus (plexus brachialis) formed the front four branches of the lower cervical spinal nerves (C,V-CVIII), joined by a small portion of the front fourth branch of the cervical spinal nerve and most of the first breast. The connection branches leads to the formation of three primary trunks of the brachial plexus - the upper, middle and lower (truncus superior, medius et inferior; printing. Fig. 1). Redistribution of nerve fibers, belonging to different segments of the spinal cord (CIV-Th(I), causes separation primary shafts at the front and rear trunks of the second order. When they merge new forms of structural Association of nerve fibers bundles brachial plexus or secondary trunks.
Brachial plexus is located in spatium interscalenum between the front and middle of the stair muscles (m. scalenus anterior et medius) together with the subclavian artery. This part is called supraclavicular (pars supraclavicular, printing. Fig. 2). Hence nerve trunks of the second order are sent lateral and down in the axillary region, forming subclavian part of P.F. (pars infraclavicularis).
At the beginning of the formation of the brachial plexus depart from it muscle branch to flight muscles (mm. scaleni) and to a long neck muscles (m. longus colli). Here, between the deep muscles of the neck from the front branch fifth cervical spinal nerve starts an incremental back phrenic nerve. Above and below the clavicle of P.F. nerves, providing a movement of the shoulder girdle and upper arm.
Back nerve shoulder blade (n. dorsalis scapulae) comes from CV. Innervates rambouye muscles (mm. rhomboidei) and muscle, levator scapulae (m. levator scapulae).
ADAPTACII nerve (n. suprascapular) comes from C,V-CVI. Runs along the front edge of the muscles m. trapezius) to supraspinatus, and then are the pits. Innervates fossae and infraspinatus muscles (mm. supra - et infraspinatus) and the shoulder joint capsule. Long nerve breast (n. thoracicus longus) comes out WithV-CVII. Penetrates under small breast muscle medial from axillary hollows. Innervates the front teeth, muscle (m. serratus anterior). Subclavian nerve (n. subclavius) comes from CV. Small thickness of the branch ought to subclavian muscle (m. subclavius) and it innervates. Medial and lateral nerves breast [nn. thoracales anteriores (BNA)] come from CV-ThI. Supply of nerve fibers of the big and small chest muscles (mm. pectorales et major minor). Chuck nerve (n. subscapularis) comes from CV-VII. Innervates same muscle and big round muscle (m. teres major). The chest-spinal nerve (n. thoracodorsalis) comes from CVII-CVIII. Presence in the General muscle back (to m. latissimus dorsi) and innervates her.
Three beam subclavian part of the brachial plexus - medial, lateral and rear (fasciculus medialis, lateralis et posterior) is divided into the nerves of the upper limbs, characterized by a significant extent. From the medial beam in axillary depression begin ulnar nerve, medial cutaneous nerve shoulder (n. cutaneus brachii medialis), medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm (n. cutaneus antebrachii medialis) and medial root of the median nerve. From lateral beam arise lateral spine of the median nerve and muscle-cutaneous nerve. Rear beam gives axillary and radial nerves (printing. Fig. 3).
Ulnar nerve (n. agent is genetically connected with the segments of the spinal cord fromVII to ThI. Located closer to the medial surface of the shoulder and arm. Approaching brush, gives skin branch to its Palmar and dorsal surfaces. Ends superficial and deep branches, Innervate the muscles brush, except discharge and opposing muscles of the thumb (m. adductor et opponens pollicis) and surface short head of flexor thumb (m. flexor pollicis brevis). On the forearm this ulnar nerve innervates the flexor brush (m. flexor carpi ulnaris) and part of the deep flexor (m. flexor digitorum profundus).
The median nerve (n. medianus) comes from CV-ThI. On the shoulder goes along with the brachial artery in the middle crosses the cubital fossa. On the forearm innervates the front group of muscles, except muscles, which innervates the ulnar nerve, and moves to brush under the lateral ligament. Innervates the hand muscles, which does not reach the ulnar nerve, and the skin of the palm.
Musculo-cutaneous nerve (n. musculocutaneus) comes from C,V -CVIII, innervates the front group of muscles of the shoulder and ends as cutaneous nerve of the lateral surface of the forearm (n. cutaneus antebrachii lateralis).
The radial nerve (n. radialis) comes from C,V-CVIII. On plicamycin channel reaches the elbow bend, where is divided by deep and superficial branch. Innervates m. triceps brachii and the back group of muscles of the forearm, and the skin of the back surface of the shoulder, forearms and partially brush.
Axillary nerve (n. axillaris) comes from C,V-CVII. Short and thick trunk it goes through four hole neck of the humerus, where is divided into the branches deltoid and small round muscles (m. deltoideus et teres minor) and to the lateral surface of the skin shoulder (printing. Fig. 4).
The composition of the brachial plexus include (through a gray connecting branches from the star and two upper thoracic sympathetic nodes) vegetative conductors, propagating along with somatic motor and sensory fibers in all branches of P.F.
The pathology of the shoulder plexus - see Neuralgia, Neuritis, Plexitis.

brachial plexus
Fig. 1. Nerves brachial plexus: 1 - fasc. lat. plexus brachialis; 2 - fasc. post plexus brachialis; 3 - fasc med. plexus brachialis; 4 - n. radialis; 5 - n. medianus; 6 - n. cutaneus brachii med.; 7 - n. ulnaris; 8 - n. cutaneus antebrachii med.; 9 - r. superficialis n. ulnaris; 10 - r. profundus n. ulnaris; 11 - nn. digitales palmares proprii; 12 - nn. digitales dorsales; 13 - nn. digitales palmares communes; 14 - n. cutaneus antebrachii lat. 15 - 1. superficialis n. radialis; 16-I. profundus n. radialis; 17 - n. cutaneus brachii lat.; 18 - a. axillaris 19 - n. musculocutaneus; 20 - nn. supraclaviculares.
Fig. 2. Supraclavicular Department of the brachial plexus: 1 - n. phrenicus; 2-m. anterior n. thoracici I; 3 - n. thoracicus longus; 4 - n. thoracodorsalis; 5-n. intercostobrachialis 5 - n. medianus; 7 - n. cutaneus antebrachii med.; 8 - n. radialis; 9 - n. ulnaris; 10-a. axillaris; 11-a. muscu locutaneus; 12 - n. suprascapularis; 13 - nn. supraclaviculares; 14 - plexus cervicalis.
Fig. 3. Scheme of brachial plexus: 1 - n. culaneus brachii med.; 2 - n. cutaneus antebrachii medialis; 3 - n. ulnaris; 4 - n. radialis; 5 - n. medianus; 6 - n. axillaris; 7 - n. musculocutaneus; 8 - fasciculus lat.; 9 - n. suprascapularis; 10 - fasciculus post.; 11 - n. thoracicus longus; 12 - fasciculus med.
Fig. 4. Projection innervation segments on the skin of the upper limb.