Pathologic anatomy of the pleura

To anomalies of development include duplikatory pleura, partial lack of it, closing left and right sheets P. behind the sternum with the formation of the mesentery of the heart (mesocardium) and other Cysts pleura - see below.
Hemorrhage in Petrograd are at death from asphyxia, infections, poisoning (mustard gas, lewisite, phosphorus, arsenic), diseases involving hemorrhagic diathesis, etc.
Dystrophic changes of the pleura - the hyalinosis, PacifiCare, sometimes followed by ossification - often is a result of inflammation P. (tuberculosis, rheumatism, histoplasmosis). In the parietal P. may see an increase in the number of fatty tissue (total of obesity) or decrease (cachexia).
Change the content of cavities P. occurs when hydrothorax (see), hemothorax (see), pneumothorax (see) and chylothorax (see the Thoracic duct).
Inflammation P. - see Pleurisy. Specific inflammation P. more likely to occur in tuberculosis, rarely with syphilis, actinomycetes.
From parasites P. most frequently encountered Echinococcus (see below).
Sometimes in the pleura are the areas, covered by a cylindrical epithelium, which is explained metaplasia or moving bronchial epithelium (for example, at the break of bronchiectasis in the pleural cavity).
Tumors of the pleura - see below.
Foreign body P. in the form of dust particles are at the dusty light (see Pneumoconiosis). In cavities on can be food supply (caused by damage to the esophagus), fragments of shells, bullets (when the wounds of the chest).
Sclerosis P. is usually the result of the inflammatory process, while in the pleural cavity at the same time are often formed spikes, and sometimes obliteration of her.