Cervical plexus

Cervical plexus (plexus cervicalis is formed with the front four branches of the upper cervical spinal nerves (CI-CIV). In plexus there are, in addition to forming its branches, three loops and branching off from them are the branches, which can be divided into three groups: skin, muscle and connective (printing. table, Fig. 1-3).
Cutaneous branches. 1. Small occipital nerve (n. occipitalis minor) from the roots WithII-III goes to the rear edge of the sternoclavicular-liners muscles and, leaving it should upwards and backwards. Nerve branches in the skin occipital area and the upper edge of the ear, neighboring front area of innervation of the big ear nerve and back - great occipital nerve. Connected also with branches of the facial nerve. 2. Big ear nerve (n. auricularis magnus) from the roots WithIII-CIV around the rear edge of the sternoclavicular-liners muscles, goes up to the ear, separating into two branches: the front and back. Anterior branch ends in the skin area of the parotid gland and the concave surface of the auricle, rear - in the skin of the convex surface of the ear and the skin behind the ear. The nerve is volatile due to the small occipital nerve and posterior auricular nerve. 3. Skin, or transversal, nerve neck (n. transversus colli), from the roots WithII-III encircles the rear edge of the sternoclavicular-liners muscles, going forward, separating into a number of branches, ending in the skin of the anterior-posterior neck. It connects with cervical branch of the facial nerve, forming with it the surface of the neck loop. 4. Supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares) from the roots C,III-CIV come out from the rear edge of the sternoclavicular-liners muscles below the previous nerve diverge fan-shaped, ending in the skin supraclavicular triangle. Topographically they are divided into front, middle and rear supraclavicular nerves.
Muscle branches can be divided into short and long. Short, or muscle, branches (CI-CIV begin from the individual cervical nerves and nerviruet deep and almost all the surface of the neck muscles. The long branches are: branch of the muscles From theII-C(IV), for Paradise is connected with branches incremental nerve and together with them innervates the specified muscle; branch sternoclavicular-liners muscles (II-III), which connects to the branches of the extension of the nerve that runs to the top of the departments specified muscles, and phrenic nerve (n. phrenicus) from the roots WithIII-CV, the most powerful cervical nerve plexus. The latter is a mixed nerve, because along with the large number of motor fibers it contains sensitive and vegetative. Following in the front staircase muscle ahead of subclavian artery, phrenic nerve passes in front of the mediastinum, where sends branch to the pleura and pericardium. Left nerve lies closer to the anterior chest wall and is suitable to the diaphragm in the apex of the heart; the right, the hotel is a little deeper than the left, enters the aperture near the inferior Vena cava. In its course of the nerve gives a number of branches. Connecting branch bind phrenic nerve middle and lower cervical nodes of the sympathetic trunk, with subclavicular loop and perivascular nerve plexuses nearby arteries. Sometimes the connecting branch with subclavicular loop is so long that takes the name ekologichyeskogo nerve. Branches okoloserdecna bags together with the same vessels penetrate into the thickness okoloserdecna bags; pleural branch approach to the mediastinal pleura in the field of lung root; diaphragmatic branch - end branches of the nerve. Before the introduction of the aperture nerve is divided into three branches: front, rear and lateral who in the thickness of the diaphragm form the reticular form plexus; sometimes it connects with branches intercostal nerves. In the front section of the tendon strain has a connecting branch between the right and left phrenic nerve. Abdominal-abdominal branches are connecting branches between phrenic nerve and some vegetative plexus: right and left lower diaphragmatic entanglements, pulmonary plexus, upper gastrointestinal plexus, and also go to the peritoneum, the liver and the lower abdomen.
Connecting branches of the cervical plexus can be divided into three groups: 1) connecting branch (I) to the curve of the neck loop (the branches extending from the loop, nerviruet group podhodyaschih muscles); 2) connecting branches ofII, III , and CIV, which are suitable to the outer branches of an accessory nerve nerviruya sternoclavicular-liner and trapezius muscles; 3) connecting branches (C(I-III), which are suitable to the top and middle of the cervical nodes sympathetic the trunk.
Pathology of the cervical plexus - see Neuralgia, Plexitis.