• The influence of drugs, alcohol, and nicotine on the fetus
  • The fetus is a human embryo in the period of intrauterine development, starting with the 9th week until the moment of birth. On the 9th week of the development of the fetus in appearance takes the features of the body. In its structure is clearly reflected head, the torso, the beginnings of limbs, eyes, nose, mouth. The length of the fetus 3-4 see
    By the end of the 3rd midwifery month (obstetric month - 4 weeks (28 days) fetal development the length of the fetus reaches 8-9 cm; weight - 25-35, the Head is about half the length of the fetus. Well-differentiated limbs. To identify differences in the structure of external genitals.
    By the end of the 4th month the length of the fruit - 15-16 cm; weight - 120, Clearly discernible floor. The skin is thin, shining, no subcutaneous fat layer. The umbilical cord is attached to the abdominal wall above the fold.
    By the end of the 5th month length of the fruit - 25 cm; weight 300-320, the skin appears bloom; seats deposits subcutaneous fat; slightly allocated Syrovina lubrication. On the fingers distinguishable nails.
    By the end of the 6-month length of the fetus reaches 30 cm, weight - 600-650, the Fetus is not viable outside the mother's body. By the end of the 7th month of the length of the fruit - 35 cm, weight within 1000 Skin red, wrinkled, which gives the fruit of the "old" view; subcutaneous fat layer is still underdeveloped. Hair on the head with a length of 0.5, see the Umbilical cord attached below the middle of the distance between the xiphoid process and symphysis. Auricle soft. Nails do not reach the end of the fingers. Boys testicles have not descended into the scrotum. Girls - labia minora is not covered large. The fruit is premature and physiologically immature, after birth, usually dies; survives only in some cases, when a particularly good care (see Incubator).
    By the end of the 8th month of the length of the fetus reaches 40 cm; weight is about 1600 Fruit after birth viable but requires special care.
    By the end of the 9th month of the length of the fetus, up to 45 cm, weight - 2400, Skin pale pink; the down almost completely eliminated; nails reach of your fingertips, subcutaneous fat layer is well developed. The testicles usually descend into the scrotum. The fetus is viable. By the end of the 10th of the month, the fruit becomes Mature, Mature born (see the Newborn).

    The size of the head of the Mature fruit

    1. Straight size (from perenosa to the occiput) in length 12 cm, the circumference of the head is a direct size 34-35 see
    2. Great slanting size (from the chin to the most remote point in the neck) - 13.5 cm, circle, respectively 39-41 see
    3. Small slanting size (from suboccipital holes until the middle of the large fontanel) - 9.5 cm, circumference - 32 see
    4. Vertically (from the area of the hyoid bones till the middle of a large fontanel) - 9.5 cm, circumference - 32 see
    5. Large transverse size (the distance between the parietal mounds) - 9,5 see
    6. Small transverse size (the distance between the most distant points of coronal suture) - 8 see
    On the trunk of the Mature fruit distinguish between these dimensions and the circle: 1) the transverse size of the hanger length is 12 cm and a circumference of this size 35 cm; 2) the transverse size of the buttocks - 9 - 9.5 cm, circles 27-28 see
    To determine the age of the unborn fetus in its growth, you can use the formula Haase. In the first half of pregnancy length of the fetus in cm corresponds to the number of months of pregnancy squared, and from the 6th midwifery month to the product obtained by multiplying the number of months to 5.

    The fruit (fetus) - human fetus in utero, starting with the 9th week until the moment of birth.

    Fig. 1. Characteristic age-related changes in the proportions of different parts of the body: 1 - in the embryo up to 2 months; 3 - the foetus 4 months; 3 - the newborn.

    The development of the fetus. By the end of the 8th week after fertilization, the length of the fetus from the top to the buttocks up to 20 mm, and he acquires the characteristic
    human traits: clearly define the individual parts of head, body and limbs. Head in the embryonic period is of the same length as its body; in the future, these ratios change (Fig. 1), comes complete organogenesis.
    Appear centers of ossification of bones, which are often defined in the lower and upper jaws, spongy part of the occipital bone, collarbones, diatezah hip and shoulder. During the fruiting period is mainly the growth of the parts already formed in the first two months of development. Length and weight of the fruit - main indicators of age (Fig. 2).

    Fig. 2. Growth curves of the body, increasing its surface and weight during the antenatal life (Boyd).

    By the end of the 3rd midwifery month (obstetric month - 4 weeks (28 days) of prenatal development has a length of 8-9 cm and weight up to 40 g, almost half of length of a body falls on the head. Start differentiating external genitals. On the fingers of upper and lower extremities are determined rudiments of nails. Appear very weak movements of the limbs that mother has not yet felt.
    By the end of the 4th month P. has a length 16 cm, weight 120 g to external attributes clearly discernible gender. The skin is red, thin, smooth, and through it Shine surface vessels. Is ossification of the skull. Ends with the formation of the muscular system. The belly button is located at the pubis.
    By the end of the 5th month length P. 24-26 cm, the third of which falls on the head, the weight of 280-300, Skin is dark red, in the subcutaneous tissue places fat. Appear sebaceous glands, separated them, mingling with exfoliating skin, deposited on his forehead, the back and legs, forming a whitish, the so-called Carovigno grease. Skin, starting with the head and face, especially in the area of eyebrows, gradually covered with a thin soft hair. The five-month fetus in the intestine is formed painted bile original feces (meconium). Auscultation of the abdominal wall pregnant able to listen to heart sounds P. 18 - 20 weeks during the examination are determined energetic movements P.; they are felt by the mother. If P. born in this period, it makes a weak respiratory movements.
    By the end of the 6-month length of the fetus reaches 30-31 cm, weight 600-700, Head disproportionately high.
    Born six-P. makes respiratory movements, vigorously moving the limbs, typically, however, soon die. In this period of fetal life, all the organs P. developed so that in the rare cases when the exceptionally favorable conditions it can grow and neutrino.
    By the end of the 7th month length of the fetus 35 cm, weight 1000, He is senile view owing to insufficient development of subcutaneous fat. The skin is red, covered Carovigno grease and vellus hair. Hair on the head with a length of 0.5 cm, eyelids several glued, pupillary membrane exists in the form of balance on the edge of the pupil of the eye, ear, soft and tight to the head, nails do not reach of your fingertips. Boys testicles have not descended into the scrotum, girls with large labia are underdeveloped and between them are significantly clitoris and labia minora. The fruit born in this period, can survive when creating the most favourable conditions.
    By the end of the 8th month length P. reaches 40 cm, weight 1500-1600, the Skin is still red, covered with fluff, but more smooth than the seven-month-old fetus. Pupillary membrane is missing. Prematurely born P. this time with proper care can survive.
    By the end of the 9th month disappear signs of prematurity and signs of maturity become more pronounced. The skin loses its red color and turns pink. Due to the rich deposits of subcutaneous fat body shape are rounded, the person loses wrinkled appearance, the skin becomes smooth, fluff Teens, hair extension, clearly stands the edge of the hairs on his forehead. The cartilage of the nose and ears become denser, nails reach the end of the fingers. The boys both testicles descended into the scrotum. The fruit born in this period, it is quite viable, at birth loud screams opens his eyes; clearly expressed sucking reflex.
    During the 10-month finally disappear signs of prematurity and comes complete the development of the fetus. The fruit is delivered. Its length 49-50 cm, weight 3200-3500, Leather pink, smooth and covered with fuzz only in the area of the shoulder girdle. Nails are for edge fingers. The length of the head is a quarter of the entire length P. Born Mature P. remained very active, move the limbs, produces a loud cry. Respiratory organs, circulation and digestion developed to such an extent that fully provide the opportunity extrauterine existence.
    To determine the age P. along its length (growth), measured on the horizontal stadiometer with a stretched position of the baby, proposed various schemes. The most accepted is Haase, which in the first 5 months of length of P. in cm corresponds to the number of months of pregnancy squared, and in the last 5 months is multiplied by five.
    On the height and weight of fruit is influenced by numerous factors such as age and physical condition (height, weight) of parents, the repetition of pregnancy, P. floor, nutrition and living conditions of the mother. With mother's age and number of pregnancies is increasing and the value of P. Average weight and height boys more than girls. High-calorie diet of the pregnant woman, especially with the increased use of vitamins, increases weight and height P.
    Age P. can be determined by x-ray point of ossification in his skeleton. At the age of 2-3 months of fetal life of a fetus appears most points of ossification (Fig. 3).
    Nervous system in the human fetus begins to develop early, at the end of the first month of life are the main parts of the brain. In the same period observed, the tab and the formation of the spinal cord and the autonomic nervous system. Further there is a complex process of differentiation.
    Body P. extremely rich in water; the content of her six-week embryo is 97.5% of total body weight. The water content in tissues of the fetus to the moment of birth is 73,9%.

    Fig. 3. The point of ossification of the skeleton of the fetus at the 10th week of intrauterine development (Schaeffer).

    Breathing the fetus. Oxygen from the mother to the fetus is transmitted through the placenta. In the fetus were observed under physiological conditions of development of fetal breathing movements, which can be determined by fluctuations of the abdominal wall of the pregnant woman, starting from 6th months, or register with kymograph. These respiratory movements of the surface, they occur at the closed voice cracks, and aspiration of amniotic fluid is not happening. Fetal breathing in the result generated in the chest cavity P. known negative pressure each time breathing movement promotes suction blood from the placenta towards the right half of the heart. Fetal breathing movements prepare neuromuscular the breathing mechanism P. to the conditions of extrauterine life. Light P. become operational only after the first extrauterine breath.
    Metabolism between mother and fetus is via the placenta (see) through the action of a very complex mechanisms.
    The excretory function of the kidneys in P. begins with the 5th of the month. Urine flows out into the cavity of the amnion, being one of the sources of the amniotic fluid. However, excretory function of the kidneys is not mandatory, since the decay products derived through the placenta. Urine fruit gipotonica, contains 130-170 mg% of chlorides, small amounts of urea and uric acid.
    During the life of the fetus, especially in the first 7-9 weeks of pregnancy, P. can influence of various pathogenic factors (hypoxia, hyperthermia, hypothermia, ionizing radiation and various chemicals, pathogens and their toxins, and so on), impacting directly on the condition of penetration through placental barrier damaging factors or providing indirect effect through the mother's body. These factors cause various changes P. that may violate the terms of its development and livelihoods (see Asphyxia, Fetopathy, Embryopathy).
    Cm. also the Germ.