Flat feet

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Flat - foot deformity characterized by a decrease its vaults. There are longitudinal arch formed near bones located in the direction from the heel bone to the ends of the fingers, and transverse arches going through and cube-shaped wedge of bone and the Foundation of the metatarsal bones. Vaulted arches, determines its strength. Powerful system of ligaments and muscles is maintaining the shape of the arches of the foot and their functions. Of great importance in keeping the arches of the feet have muscles, spinymouse foot (primarily rear tibial muscle, tendon which, being attached to several bones of the foot, brings them closer), and long peroneal muscle. Thanks to the tension in these muscles spinerette heel bone and planiruetsya the forefoot that provides its torsion (twisting) and the deepening of the vaults. Voltage of the flexor tendons (long flexor thumb, long and short flexor)serving as though the stretch between the calcaneus and fingers, bringing closer the front and rear sections of the arc longitudinal arch, hinders the development of flatfoot. Listed biomechanical features of the foot determine its endurance to the load, the weight of the body, the ability to adapt to the roughness of the support surface and to cushion the shocks. In norm the inner part of the longitudinal arch has a height of 5-7 cm (from the tuberosity of the scaphoid), outer - about 2 cm (from the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone).
Kids feet compared with adult short, broad, and in the heel area is narrowed, the fingers apart. Children on the sole strongly developed subcutaneous tissue that fills the arches of the foot, which often leads to diagnostic errors. The volume of the movements of the child's foot more due to the greater elasticity muscular-ligamentous apparatus, and therefore children stop less suited to static loads (jumping, sococim high shells)and fatigued and prone to mechanical damage. Therefore, early specialization in sports entails overload and often leads to flat feet. When adequate load the arches of the foot slightly flattened, but at the end it immediately with the help of active muscle returns to its original position. Prolonged and excessive burden leads to muscle fatigue and persistent lowering of the vaults.
However, it should be remembered that reduced the code in children 4-5 years is a consequence of the incomplete development of the foot and requires no special treatment. It should, however, dynamic monitoring, strengthening the muscular-ligamentous apparatus starting with 3-4 years of age.
Reduction of longitudinal arch leads to longitudinal flat feet, and cross - to transverse platypodia. Often these forms of flatfoot (longitudinal and transverse) combined. Sometimes a flat foot is accompanied by the abstraction of the forefoot, raising its outer edge and pronation heels (postovalova stop).
The main reason for the development of flatfoot is the weakness of muscles and ligaments, participating in maintenance of the arches of the foot. In addition, the reason flat feet may become excessive fatigue in connection with long legs and wearing tight shoes, especially narrow or with high heels, with a thick sole. When walking in high heels is a redistribution of load with the heel area is moved to the area of cross vault, which does not stand it, and begins the formation of the transverse platypodia.